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A gubernya in Suwalki, is bordered on the north by Suwalki
and Sejny counties, on the west and the south by Grodno gubernya, on the
south -west by Lomza county, and on the west by Prussia. Total land measures
36.3 square miles. It is flat area with low elevation reach neighbouring
counties under the name of the Augustow Hills. A large amount of forest,
about 70 000 dziesiecin (old unit of measure), supplies water to the net
of rivers , lakes and swamps.
The main rivers are: the Niemen as the east border of
county, the Czarna Hancza River on the north border with Sejny county,
and the Biebrza River on the south border. The branches within the county
area are: Netta, Stawiska and Jastrzebanka and their numerous tributaries.
Lakes are mostly located on the north -west side of the county ; the biggest
are : Sajno, Necko, Biale, Nizsza Rospuda, Studzieniczne, Gorczyca, Orle,
Paniewo, Krzywe, Mikoszewo as so on.
Sandy area creates the second class of rye soil, one
of the poorest in Kingdom, Augustow county has the 5th place of a soil
classification in Suwalki gubernya. The amount of wheat sowing ( in years
1870-1872) was 1.300 czetwiertni (old unit of measure), of rye - 16 000
czetw, and the average amount was ; 8 300 of wheat and 67 000 of rye.
The livestock is without any worth. There are horse stables in Swiack
and Wasilewicze, properties of the Wolowicze counts. Factory industry
on low level. Except alcohol distilleries and breweries there is
the only one foundry of agriculture equipment in Sztabin. Handicraft production
is limited to local and the simplest needs. The main rustics` occupations
are: weaving and wood-distillation, trade concentrates in Augustow town
and has no good results.
Means of communication; first of all navigable rivers:
the Niemen, Biebrza and the Augustow canal crossing the county on the
length of 98 wiorst, farther it crosses counties: a road to Kowno on the
west side , and a road to Krolewiec on the east; they are linked by mail-road
running to Lipsk and to Sopockinie.
Total population : 65 690 (1781 persons per one mile):
33 402 men and 32 253 women. The Augustow province was established after
the Congress Kingdom in 1816, and remained untill 1837, when it was changed
to a gubernya. The Augustow gubernya, one of the five of the former Kingdom
territorial administration, was created from Augustow province in 1837,
and was eliminated by a new territorial system in 1866, and in its place
two new gubernyias were established: Suwalki and Lomza. The Augustow forestry
is divided on 3 ranges: Szczerba, Sajenki and Swiderek.
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego
- Warsaw [1880, vol. 1]
Submitted by Jay M. Orbik and translated
by Iwona Dakiniewicz - June 2002