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The powiat sanocki covers part of the former district
of Sanok. Its area comes to 1,149.02 sq. km. It consists of 136 settlements,
129 registered gminas, in which there are 13,322 houses and 86,953 inhabitants
(43,139 male, 43,814 female), and thus 75 inhabitants per square kilometer.
In terms of religion there are 32,604 Roman Catholics, 46,900 Greek Catholics,
57 Protestants, and 7,392 Jews; 39,875 are Poles, 45,591 Ruthenians, 1,138
Germans, and 65 others. The county borders to the south on Hungary, to
the west on Krosno county, to the north on Brzozow county and Bircza county,
and to the east on Lisko county. Besides Sanok there are the following
small towns: Bu-kowsko, Nowotaniec, Jasliska, Rymanow, Jacmierz, and Mrzyglod.
There are county courts in Bukowsko and Rymanow. With the exception of
the San river basin, the so-called Podole Sanockie ["Sanok depression"]
and the valleys on the Wislok, it is a hilly and wooded country, watered
by numerous tributaries of both those rivers. The main lines of communication
are the cross-country and the Przemysl - Lupkowska railways, which merge
southeast of Sanok in Zagorz. They cross the northern and eastern parts
of the county. In addition paved highways extend from Sanok: southward
by the valley of the San and Oslawa to the Hungarian border, east by the
San valley along the right bank southward and finally through the mountains
to Tyrawa Woloska, from Zagorz do Lisko, and from Sanok west to Rymanow.
The so-called Brzozow road intersects this highway in Dabrowka Ruska from
the north, and runs southward to Bukowiec.
The western part of the county is more hilly and has
few highways. The most important sources of wealth are wood and the fairly
numerous oil mines. In previous centuries a salt-works existed in Tyrawa.
Characteristic of this region were the numerous clans of the nobility,
whose surnames became established only in the 16th century and who almost
to the latter decades of this century, due to their isolation in mountain
valleys, held onto their ancient customs and land. Only recently they
began a pitched battle with foreign capital stripping them of their ancient
settlements. Numerous archives and family traditions provided Z. Kaczkowski
with the contents for the greater part of his historical tales. [Mac.
(Dr. Maurycy Maciszewski) – Vol. X, pp. 298-300].
Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Fall 2001 Rodziny.
Sroda county [powiat] has existed in its current form
since 1815; it extends between 52 degrees 5' and 52 degrees 35' north
latitude, and between 17 degrees 03' and 17 degrees 30' east longitude.
To the north it borders on the county of Gniezno, to the east on the counties
of Gniezno and Wrzesnia, to the south on the counties of Jarocin (formerly
Pleszew) and Srem, and to the west on the counties of Srem, Poznan, and
Oborniki. At its greatest extent north to south it is 53 km. long, and
its greatest length east to west is 30 km. Its surface is flat, generally
sloping toward the Warta River. Its highest elevation is the plateau at
Gultowy. The banks of the Cybina and Glowna rivers, and the western banks
of the Zaniemysl lakes, are hilly. [Omitted: a section describing various
The river Glowna, flowing out of lake Lednica, enters
the county at Wojnowe, flows west to the Warta, and leaves the county
at Holendry Kowalskie, having flowed about 15 km. The Cybina flows parallel
to the Glowna, arising at the county's borders and leaving the county
at the elevation of Swarzedz, having flowed 27 km. The Cybina flows from
the Jezierce ponds, joins with a stream from Czachorki, and takes in the
outflow of Lake Szkudelne and a stream flowing from Kostryn. The Maskawa
begins at Wielkie Sierkierki, flows southwest, joins the Chrzascina at
Tulce, below which it enters Srem county; past Kromolice it returns to
Sroda county and changes direction, flowing to the southeast; having crossed
onto the elevation of Nietrzanow, it flows west once again, and into the
Warta near Kepa; it is strengthened by the Zrenica, Bardeczka, Szywra,
and a stream flowing from Jaszkowo; its length is over 40 km. The Warta
forms the county's southern border for the whole distance from Debno to
Kepa ... There are sizable forests at Jezierce, Iwno, Nekla, and Zaniemysl.
Fertile meadows unfold in the river lowlands. [Omitted: details on
various rather uninteresting points of topographical interest].
Three railway lines cross the county: the Poznan-Torun
line, with stations at Biskupica and Pobiedziska (for a distance of about
20 km.), the Poznan-Wrzesnia line, with stations at Kostrzyn and Nekla
(about 33 km.), and the Poznan-Kluczbork line, with stations at Sroda
and Sulecin (about 15 km.). The county's surface area covers 101,477 hectares
(75,595 farmland, 6,627 of meadows, 9,844 of forests); average net income
per hectare of farmland is 12.14 marks, 20.76 marks per hectare of meadow,
and 3.52 marks per hectare of forest. This area is divided into two judicial
districts, 6 police districts, 12 Civil Registry districts, and 4 municipal,
159 rural, and 108 manorial districts. As of 1885 it had 408 settlements,
4,767 hearths, 9,788 families, 52,939 inhabitants (25,181 men; 27,758
women; 9,211 children younger than 6; and 11,273 ages 614; 44,044 Catholics,
8,125 Protestants, and 770 Jews). In 1836 there were 38,267 inhabitants;
in 1837 there were 40,788 inhabitants and 4,188 hearths; in 1843 there
were 43,881 inhabitants; in 1858 there were 46,204 inhabitants (38,069
Catholic, 6,956 Protestant, 1,179 Jewish); in 1871 there were 50,079 inhabitants;
in 1880 there were 52,633.
In the municipal districts there were 18 settlements,
780 hearths, 2,291 families, 10,673 inhabitants (5,036 men, 5,637 women,
1,679 children younger than 6 years of age, 2,178 from 6-14 years of age;
8,038 Catholics, 1,924 Protestants, 711 Jews) and 3,806 hectares of land
(3,244 of farmland, 212 of meadows). In 1871 there were 8,860 inhabitants;
in 1880 there were 9,970.
In the rural districts there were 208 settlements, 2,838
hearths, 4,890 families, 23,844 inhabitants (11,646 men; 12,198 women;
4,419 children younger than 6 years of age; 5,320 from 6 to 14 years of
age; 18,918 Catholics, 4,880 Protestants, and 46 Jews) and 37,178 hectares
(30,899 of farmland, 2,227 of meadows, and 515 of forests). In 1871 there
were 23,612 inhabitants; in 1880 there were 25,506.
In the manorial districts there were 182 settlements,
1,159 hearths, 3,107 families, 18,422 inhabitants (8,499 men; 9,923 women;
3,113 children younger than 6 years of age; 3,775 from 6 to 14 years of
age; 17,088 Catholics, 1,321 Protestants, 13 Jews) and 60,492 hectares
(41,452 of farmland, 4,188 of meadows, and 9,329 of forests). In 1871
there were 17,607 inhabitants; in 1880, there were 17,157.
District courts are located in Sroda and Pobiedziska,
and district commissioners in Nekla, Pobiedziska, Kostrzyn, Zaniemysl
and Sroda; civil registrars are in Bronislaw, Jerzykowo, Kleszczewo, Krerowo,
Kostrzyn, Michalów, Nekla, Pobiedziska, Sroda, Szlachcin, Wislawice, and
Zaniemysl. There are 28 Catholic parishes: Bagrowo,
Czerlejno, Gdecz (Giecz), Gorka Targowa, Grodziszczko, Gultowy, Iwno,
Kleszczewo, Kostrzyn, Koszuty, Krerowo, Maczniki, Madre, Nekla, Nietrzano w,
Niezamysl, Opatowko, Pobiedziska, Siedlec, Siekierki, Smieciska, Solec,
Sroda, Tulce, Uzarzewo, Weglewo, Winnagora and Wronczyn; parishes in other
counties are Kurnik, Slawno, and Swarzedz. Protestant parishes are in:
Kostrzyn, Holendry Nekielskie, Pobiedziska, Sroda and Zaniemysl, and,
beyond the county's borders, Bnin, Goslina Murowana, Miloslaw, Nowe Miasto
and Wrzesnia. Jews have synagogues in Pobiedziska, Sroda and Zaniemysl.
The population is primarily Polish and Catholic, and
is employed in agriculture, livestock, retail trade, and industry. Its
dress and customs are the same as in the counties of Srem and Pleszew.
The ratio between hereditary lands in the hands of Poles and those acquired
by Germans is 136 to 93. In 1858 there were 54 Polish land-owning heirs
and 10 German. German colonization acquired recently the estate of Piatkowo
Czarne, 660 hectares in area. Of estates it has seized, the government
owns:.Polska Wies (423 ha.), Strumiany (362 ha.), Weglowo (350 ha.), Trzebislawki
(362 ha.), and part of the forestry station of Zielonka (2,218 ha.). The
Sroda pastorate owns the manorial farmstead of Topola (152 ha.), and the
Poznan seminary owns the village of Nadziejewo (449 ha.). Large-scale
raising and fattening of cattle is done by almost all the manors. In 1837
there were 5,891 horses counted, 16,701 head of horned cattle, 95,220
sheep, 39 goats and 10,260 hogs. In 1858 there were 7,216 horses, 20,250
cattle, 112,909 sheep, 231 goats, 8,009 hogs, and 58 donkeys. There are
breeding grounds for mares in Chwalkowo and Gowarzewo. Zielniki has a
renowned pedigree sheepfold (Rambouillet); original Negretti are bred
in Wyszakowo, and Cotswold sheep in Kopaczyce and Smieciska; here and
there the Ramouillet and Negretti breeds are crossed. Hogs are bred in
Borowo. Borowo, Kowalskie, Libartowo, Nagradowica, Pierzchno, Poklatki,
Podstolice, Sarbinowo and Wydzierzewice produce dairy products. Annual
income from government-owned forests (Jezierce, Pradno and Steszewko)
between 1868 and 1871 averaged 17,322 marks. In 1858 there were 45 fruit-tree
nurseries. Sizable fields of reeds are located in Wronczyn. Willows are
planted in Murzynowo Borowe. Beets are cultivated in Babin, Chwalkowo,
Maczniki, Orzeszkowo, Plawce, Polazejewo, Slupia, Ulejno, Zabikowo, Zdziechowice
and Zrenica. The cultivation of hops and tobacco is gradually declining.
The agricultural school was transferred from Wielowies Krotoszynska to
Polska Wies near Pobiedziska. There are distilleries on 15 properties,
steam mills on 4. There are also factories producing vinegar, starch,
sugar (Sroda), and 6 facilities producing peat.
From 1578 to 1871 the number of shoemakers in the country
rose from 141 to 152; the number of smiths from 1,221 to 1,335; wheelwrights
from 25 to 59; carpenters from 44 to 52; leatherworkers from 12 to 20;
coopers from 15 to 19; clothmakers from 16 to 17; etc. (The population
is employed in weaving cloth as a sideline; in 1858 there were 769 weaving
shops). During that time the number of brickworks declined from 25 to
11; water mills went from 16 to 11; windmills from 108 to 94. In 1871
there were 388 merchants, tradesmen, and agents, and 197 tavern-keepers;
the Sroda savings bank had 416 members, and the one in Kostrzyn 173. The
preceding statistics and other percentages for Sroda county are based
on the 1858 statistical list... compiled by the royal landed proprietors'
councilor Glaeser (in German and Polish). A similar list for the 1871
was not printed. [The rest of the entry is omitted because it deals
mainly with when various villages are first mentioned in records, and
which nobles owned them.] [E(dmund) Cal(lier)]
Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego
- Warsaw [1890, vol. 11, pp. 159-165].
Tranlated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Spring 2000 Bulletin.