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Sanok County

The powiat sanocki covers part of the former district of Sanok. Its area comes to 1,149.02 sq. km. It consists of 136 settlements, 129 registered gminas, in which there are 13,322 houses and 86,953 inhabitants (43,139 male, 43,814 female), and thus 75 inhabitants per square kilometer. In terms of religion there are 32,604 Roman Catholics, 46,900 Greek Catholics, 57 Protestants, and 7,392 Jews; 39,875 are Poles, 45,591 Ruthenians, 1,138 Germans, and 65 others. The county borders to the south on Hungary, to the west on Krosno county, to the north on Brzozow county and Bircza county, and to the east on Lisko county. Besides Sanok there are the following small towns: Bu-kowsko, Nowotaniec, Jasliska, Rymanow, Jacmierz, and Mrzyglod. There are county courts in Bukowsko and Rymanow. With the exception of the San river basin, the so-called Podole Sanockie ["Sanok depression"] and the valleys on the Wislok, it is a hilly and wooded country, watered by numerous tributaries of both those rivers. The main lines of communication are the cross-country and the Przemysl - Lupkowska railways, which merge southeast of Sanok in Zagorz. They cross the northern and eastern parts of the county. In addition paved highways extend from Sanok: southward by the valley of the San and Oslawa to the Hungarian border, east by the San valley along the right bank southward and finally through the mountains to Tyrawa Woloska, from Zagorz do Lisko, and from Sanok west to Rymanow. The so-called Brzozow road intersects this highway in Dabrowka Ruska from the north, and runs southward to Bukowiec.

The western part of the county is more hilly and has few highways. The most important sources of wealth are wood and the fairly numerous oil mines. In previous centuries a salt-works existed in Tyrawa. Characteristic of this region were the numerous clans of the nobility, whose surnames became established only in the 16th century and who almost to the latter decades of this century, due to their isolation in mountain valleys, held onto their ancient customs and land. Only recently they began a pitched battle with foreign capital stripping them of their ancient settlements. Numerous archives and family traditions provided Z. Kaczkowski with the contents for the greater part of his historical tales. [Mac. (Dr. Maurycy Maciszewski) – Vol. X, pp. 298-300].

Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Fall 2001 Rodziny.

S~roda County

Sroda county [powiat] has existed in its current form since 1815; it extends between 52 degrees 5' and 52 degrees 35' north latitude, and between 17 degrees 03' and 17 degrees 30' east longitude. To the north it borders on the county of Gniezno, to the east on the counties of Gniezno and Wrzesnia, to the south on the counties of Jarocin (formerly Pleszew) and Srem, and to the west on the counties of Srem, Poznan, and Oborniki. At its greatest extent north to south it is 53 km. long, and its greatest length east to west is 30 km. Its surface is flat, generally sloping toward the Warta River. Its highest elevation is the plateau at Gultowy. The banks of the Cybina and Glowna rivers, and the western banks of the Zaniemysl lakes, are hilly. [Omitted: a section describing various hills.]

The river Glowna, flowing out of lake Lednica, enters the county at Wojnowe, flows west to the Warta, and leaves the county at Holendry Kowalskie, having flowed about 15 km. The Cybina flows parallel to the Glowna, arising at the county's borders and leaving the county at the elevation of Swarzedz, having flowed 27 km. The Cybina flows from the Jezierce ponds, joins with a stream from Czachorki, and takes in the outflow of Lake Szkudelne and a stream flowing from Kostryn. The Maskawa begins at Wielkie Sierkierki, flows southwest, joins the Chrzascina at Tulce, below which it enters Srem county; past Kromolice it returns to Sroda county and changes direction, flowing to the southeast; having crossed onto the elevation of Nietrzanow, it flows west once again, and into the Warta near Kepa; it is strengthened by the Zrenica, Bardeczka, Szywra, and a stream flowing from Jaszkowo; its length is over 40 km. The Warta forms the county's southern border for the whole distance from Debno to Kepa ... There are sizable forests at Jezierce, Iwno, Nekla, and Zaniemysl. Fertile meadows unfold in the river lowlands. [Omitted: details on various rather uninteresting points of topographical interest].

Three railway lines cross the county: the Poznan-Torun line, with stations at Biskupica and Pobiedziska (for a distance of about 20 km.), the Poznan-Wrzesnia line, with stations at Kostrzyn and Nekla (about 33 km.), and the Poznan-Kluczbork line, with stations at Sroda and Sulecin (about 15 km.). The county's surface area covers 101,477 hectares (75,595 farmland, 6,627 of meadows, 9,844 of forests); average net income per hectare of farmland is 12.14 marks, 20.76 marks per hectare of meadow, and 3.52 marks per hectare of forest. This area is divided into two judicial districts, 6 police districts, 12 Civil Registry districts, and 4 municipal, 159 rural, and 108 manorial districts. As of 1885 it had 408 settlements, 4,767 hearths, 9,788 families, 52,939 inhabitants (25,181 men; 27,758 women; 9,211 children younger than 6; and 11,273 ages 614; 44,044 Catholics, 8,125 Protestants, and 770 Jews). In 1836 there were 38,267 inhabitants; in 1837 there were 40,788 inhabitants and 4,188 hearths; in 1843 there were 43,881 inhabitants; in 1858 there were 46,204 inhabitants (38,069 Catholic, 6,956 Protestant, 1,179 Jewish); in 1871 there were 50,079 inhabitants; in 1880 there were 52,633.

In the municipal districts there were 18 settlements, 780 hearths, 2,291 families, 10,673 inhabitants (5,036 men, 5,637 women, 1,679 children younger than 6 years of age, 2,178 from 6-14 years of age; 8,038 Catholics, 1,924 Protestants, 711 Jews) and 3,806 hectares of land (3,244 of farmland, 212 of meadows). In 1871 there were 8,860 inhabitants; in 1880 there were 9,970.

In the rural districts there were 208 settlements, 2,838 hearths, 4,890 families, 23,844 inhabitants (11,646 men; 12,198 women; 4,419 children younger than 6 years of age; 5,320 from 6 to 14 years of age; 18,918 Catholics, 4,880 Protestants, and 46 Jews) and 37,178 hectares (30,899 of farmland, 2,227 of meadows, and 515 of forests). In 1871 there were 23,612 inhabitants; in 1880 there were 25,506.

In the manorial districts there were 182 settlements, 1,159 hearths, 3,107 families, 18,422 inhabitants (8,499 men; 9,923 women; 3,113 children younger than 6 years of age; 3,775 from 6 to 14 years of age; 17,088 Catholics, 1,321 Protestants, 13 Jews) and 60,492 hectares (41,452 of farmland, 4,188 of meadows, and 9,329 of forests). In 1871 there were 17,607 inhabitants; in 1880, there were 17,157.

District courts are located in Sroda and Pobiedziska, and district commissioners in Nekla, Pobiedziska, Kostrzyn, Zaniemysl and Sroda; civil registrars are in Bronislaw, Jerzykowo, Kleszczewo, Krerowo, Kostrzyn, Michalów, Nekla, Pobiedziska, Sroda, Szlachcin, Wislawice, and Zaniemysl. There are 28 Catholic parishes: Bagrowo, Czerlejno, Gdecz (Giecz), Gorka Targowa, Grodziszczko, Gultowy, Iwno, Kleszczewo, Kostrzyn, Koszuty, Krerowo, Maczniki, Madre, Nekla, Nietrzano w, Niezamysl, Opatowko, Pobiedziska, Siedlec, Siekierki, Smieciska, Solec, Sroda, Tulce, Uzarzewo, Weglewo, Winnagora and Wronczyn; parishes in other counties are Kurnik, Slawno, and Swarzedz. Protestant parishes are in: Kostrzyn, Holendry Nekielskie, Pobiedziska, Sroda and Zaniemysl, and, beyond the county's borders, Bnin, Goslina Murowana, Miloslaw, Nowe Miasto and Wrzesnia. Jews have synagogues in Pobiedziska, Sroda and Zaniemysl.

The population is primarily Polish and Catholic, and is employed in agriculture, livestock, retail trade, and industry. Its dress and customs are the same as in the counties of Srem and Pleszew. The ratio between hereditary lands in the hands of Poles and those acquired by Germans is 136 to 93. In 1858 there were 54 Polish land-owning heirs and 10 German. German colonization acquired recently the estate of Piatkowo Czarne, 660 hectares in area. Of estates it has seized, the government owns:.Polska Wies (423 ha.), Strumiany (362 ha.), Weglowo (350 ha.), Trzebislawki (362 ha.), and part of the forestry station of Zielonka (2,218 ha.). The Sroda pastorate owns the manorial farmstead of Topola (152 ha.), and the Poznan seminary owns the village of Nadziejewo (449 ha.). Large-scale raising and fattening of cattle is done by almost all the manors. In 1837 there were 5,891 horses counted, 16,701 head of horned cattle, 95,220 sheep, 39 goats and 10,260 hogs. In 1858 there were 7,216 horses, 20,250 cattle, 112,909 sheep, 231 goats, 8,009 hogs, and 58 donkeys. There are breeding grounds for mares in Chwalkowo and Gowarzewo. Zielniki has a renowned pedigree sheepfold (Rambouillet); original Negretti are bred in Wyszakowo, and Cotswold sheep in Kopaczyce and Smieciska; here and there the Ramouillet and Negretti breeds are crossed. Hogs are bred in Borowo. Borowo, Kowalskie, Libartowo, Nagradowica, Pierzchno, Poklatki, Podstolice, Sarbinowo and Wydzierzewice produce dairy products. Annual income from government-owned forests (Jezierce, Pradno and Steszewko) between 1868 and 1871 averaged 17,322 marks. In 1858 there were 45 fruit-tree nurseries. Sizable fields of reeds are located in Wronczyn. Willows are planted in Murzynowo Borowe. Beets are cultivated in Babin, Chwalkowo, Maczniki, Orzeszkowo, Plawce, Polazejewo, Slupia, Ulejno, Zabikowo, Zdziechowice and Zrenica. The cultivation of hops and tobacco is gradually declining. The agricultural school was transferred from Wielowies Krotoszynska to Polska Wies near Pobiedziska. There are distilleries on 15 properties, steam mills on 4. There are also factories producing vinegar, starch, sugar (Sroda), and 6 facilities producing peat.

From 1578 to 1871 the number of shoemakers in the country rose from 141 to 152; the number of smiths from 1,221 to 1,335; wheelwrights from 25 to 59; carpenters from 44 to 52; leatherworkers from 12 to 20; coopers from 15 to 19; clothmakers from 16 to 17; etc. (The population is employed in weaving cloth as a sideline; in 1858 there were 769 weaving shops). During that time the number of brickworks declined from 25 to 11; water mills went from 16 to 11; windmills from 108 to 94. In 1871 there were 388 merchants, tradesmen, and agents, and 197 tavern-keepers; the Sroda savings bank had 416 members, and the one in Kostrzyn 173. The preceding statistics and other percentages for Sroda county are based on the 1858 statistical list... compiled by the royal landed proprietors' councilor Glaeser (in German and Polish). A similar list for the 1871 was not printed. [The rest of the entry is omitted because it deals mainly with when various villages are first mentioned in records, and which nobles owned them.] [E(dmund) Cal(lier)]

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1890, vol. 11, pp. 159-165].

Tranlated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Spring 2000 Bulletin.


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