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Wabrzezno County

The county of Wabrzezno belonging to the district of the regency of Kwidzyn was created in 1887 from the counties of Torun, Brodnica, Grudziadz and Chelmo with the intent of strengthening the German element. It borders on the north with the county of Grudziadz, on the west with the counties of Chelmo and Torun, on the south with the river Drweca and the Kingdom of Poland, on the east with the county of Brodnica. It has an area of 174,324 acres, mainly 121,949 acres of tilled land, 12,308 acres of meadows, 19,867 acres of forests; clear profit from 2.5 acres of tilled land amounts to 12.53 marks, from 2.5 acres of meadows 10.57 marks, from 2.5 acres of forest 2.35 marks. 

The county has two cities: Wabrzezno and Golub, 22 townships, 51 village communities, 69 manorial circuits, 220 settlements, 3960 dwelling houses, 7897 huts, 9 public buildings. In 1872 there were in the county 35,344 inhabitants, in 1875 - 37,265, in 1880 - 39,535, and in 1885 - 39,308. In 1885 there were 23,835 Catholics, 13,926 Evangelists, 1276 Jews, 271 dissidents. 

According to the official census of December 1, 1890, the county had 39,863 inhabitants, 23,857 Catholics, 14.711 Protestants, 287 of different sects, and 1025 Jews. In 1892 the county had 2800 school children (Evangelists) and 4500 Catholic children. The school census of May 20, 1886 showed that in the two cities of the county there were 1404 children, among them 759 Catholic, 797 speaking only Polish, 14 speaking Polish and German; in the villages there were 6274 school children, among them 3809 Catholics; speaking only Polish 3786, speaking Polish and German 73 (see Physiographic Pamphlet, vol. 9, year 1889, p.50). This same source shows that in the county of Wabrzezno there are 23,335 Poles. The village population is almost entirely Polish; Golub, in 1885 having 1536 Catholics, 614 Evangelists, 478 Jews and 7 dissidents, is predominantly Polish, Wabrezno more or less half. 

The average daily salary amounts to in Wabrzezno and Kowalewo 1.2 marks for men, and 80 phenigs for women, in Golub it is 20 phenigs higher. In all other localities of the county a regular daily wage of 1.1 marks for men and 75 phenigs for women was established; the yearly wage was 360 marks and 240 marks. 

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1893 

Submitted by: Stan Schmidt, 106 S. Hill St., Roselle, IL 60172 (Jan 1996)

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Wl~adysl~awów County

The county of Wladyslawów in Suwalki gubernia was created in 1867 from the western half of former Maryampol county, and covers 32.22 square milas [1 mila is about 7 kilometers]. It occupies the northwestern part of the gubernia. It is bordered on the south by Wylkowyszki county, and on the east by Maryampol county; the Niemen river [Nemunas] comprises part of the the eastern and northern border, dividing it from Kowno gubernia; and on the west the Szeszupa river separates the county from that of Pilkaly in East Prussia.

The county occupies part of a lowland extending north of an elevated lake district to the Baltic. The average elevation is 180 to 200 feet. We find that the land here slopes downward from south to north and from southeast to northwest. The highest point is near Sudargi [Sudargas], not far from the Szeszupa, at an elevation of 277 feet. A slightly elevated wooded area stretches over the northern half, and its waters drain to the Szeszupa via two almost parallel rivers, the Jotyja [Jotija] and the Sesarka [? Siesartis]. They flow from the highest-elevated area, near Szaki [Sakai], which is where the Aukspirta begins, as well as the Penta, which flows into the Szeszupa near the village of Ponowie [Panoviai]. From the northeastern part of the county, which is elevated and wooded, three small rivers flow to the Szeszupa: the Wysoka [Visakis], the Milippa [Milupe] (at Tumpeje [Tumpai]) and the Nienuppa [Nenupe] (at Narwojcie [Norvaisai]). The right tributaries of the Szeszupa as a whole form the shape of a fan. Only small, short streams flow to the Niemen.

The county’s soil is quite fertile, partially composed of charnozem [a kind of dark soil], and is favorable for growing grains, flax, and potatoes. In 1887 the following amounts were sown in this county: 23,419 chetverts of winter corn, 39,657 of vegetables, and 24,431 of potatoes. The amounts harvested were 154,110 of winter corn, 176,209 of vegetables, and 211,936 of potatoes.The government-owned forests cover 40,225 mórgs of land and are divided into two forest districts, Gryszkabuda [Griskabudis] and Sudargi.

The county’s population grew from 64,396 in 1867 to 77,745 in 1890. There are 84,907 people registered as permanent residents, but 8,064 actually stay elsewhere. Among those registered as permanent residents, there are 139 followers of the Orthodox Church; 8,701 Protestants; and 10,704 Jews. Catholics comprise 77%, Jews 12%. Of the urban population, Jews comprise 92.4%, Protestants 6.6%. The Catholic population is Lithuanian, with a small admixture of the original Polish and Belarusian element in the noble and official classes; the rest are Jews and Germans.

In terms of factory industry, the county is rather poor. In 1878 there were 11 small plants (38 workers), producing 89,515 silver rubles’ worth of goods; 5 distilleries (20 workers), with products worth 85,828 silver rubles; and 4 small breweries, with products worth 2,400 silver rubles.

Wladyslawów deanery, of Sejny diocese, consists of 12 parishes; Blogoslawienstwo [Ploksciai], Gielgudyszki [Gelgaudiskis], Gryszkabuda, Ilgowo [Ilguva], Kajmele [Kaimelis], Luksze [Lusiai], Poniemon-Fergissa [Zemoji Panemune], Slowiki [Slavikai], Sudargi (also called Jansborg), Syntowty [Sintautai], Szaki, and Wladyslawow. As for educational facilities, in addition to 2-class public schools in Wladyslawow and Szaki, there are elementary schools in the following villages: Sudargi (two), Gryszkabuda, Barzdy [Barzdai], Slowiki, Luksze, Syntowty, Gielgudyszki, Pamiatka, Lokajcie [Lekeciai], and Blogoslawienstwo. In terms of the judiciary system, this county has a justice of the peace court of District II for the towns of Wladyslawów and Szaki, as well as four gmina courts in Slowiki, Syntowty, Blogoslawienstwo, and Lokajcie. These courts belong to district II of the conference of justices of the peace in Maryampol. In terms of administrative divisions, the county consists of two towns, Wladyslawow and Szaki, as well as 11 gminas: Blogoslawienstwo, Dobrowola [? Dabravole], Gielgudyszki, Gryszkabuda, Kidule [Kiduliai], Lesnictwo, Swiatoszyn, Syntowty, Szylgale [Silgaliai], Tomaszbuda [Tamsbudis], and Zyple [Zipliai]. [Br{onislaw} Ch{lebowski}]

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14 pp. 692-693].

Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Winter 2004 Rodziny.

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Wyrzysk County

In the Grand Duchy of Poznan, in the Bydgoszcz regency, has an area 21 1/4square miles. Created from part of the area of the former province of Gniezno, it borders on the Kwidzyn regency (West Prussia) and the counties of Bydgoszcz, Szubin, Wagrowiec, Chodziez. It occupies part of the Notec valley and river-basin, which includes within the county the smaller tributaries Gnila with the Rokitka by the Wygoda inn, the Lobzonka with the Lubsia and Rudna near Wyrzysk. In addition we find here some 40 small lakes, of which the more prominent are Roscimin, Drzewianowo, Slawianowo. The soil is fertile. The population lives off of agriculture and raising cattle. Of the county's total surface area, 115,981 hectares, 76,244 ha. are in cultivation, 15,988 in meadows, 11,910 in forests. Net income from 1 hectare of farmland is reckoned at 10.18 marks, from 1 ha. of meadowland 13.32, and from 1 ha. of forest 3.92 marks. Of this 5,331 ha. belong to the town (3,636 cultivated, 1,088 meadows, 37 forest); to the rural gminas belong 45,491 ha. (33,591 farmland, 6,391 meadowland, 519 forest), and to the major estate 64,959 ha. (39,017 farmland, 8,509 meadowland, 11,354 forest).

In 1885 the county's population was 57,367 (27,859 men, 29,508 women). 40,026 of them were born in the county. As regards religion, 27,655 were Catholics, 27,823 Protestants, 54 of other faiths, 1,834 Jews. In the towns there were 13,941 inhabitants, 8,752 of them born in the county, 5,572 Catholic, 6,771 Protestant, and 1,571 Jews. The rural gminas had 27,387 inhabitants, of whom 11,621 were Catholics, 15,483 Protestants, 27 of other faiths, 256 Jews; on the major estate were 16,039 inhabitants (10,462 Catholic, 5,569 Protestant, 7 Jews). In 1831 there were 33,298 inhabitants, of them 15,541 Catholic, 15,999 Protestant, 1,758 Jews.

In the county's territory are the towns of Wyrzysko, Lobzenica, Mrocza, Naklo, Wysoka, Miasteczko. Poles represent about 40% of the total population.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol. 14].

Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Fall 1995 Bulletin.


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