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Sadlno

Sadlno, in 1398 Sedlino, a village and manorial farmstead in Nieszawa county, Boguszyce gmina, Sadlno parish, 42 versts [about 45 km.] from Nieszawa; it has a parish church of stone, and 327 inhabitants. In 1827 there were 24 houses there and 227 inhabitants. In 1878 the Sadlno manorial farmstead, called Lysak, had 1,358 mórgs of land: 1,173 of farmland and gardens, 60 of meadows, 83 of forests, and 42 unused. There were 16 stone buildings and 7 wooden; there was crop rotation on 9 fields, and an unadministered forest. The village of Sadlno had 41 settlements, with 443 mórgs of land; the village of Kazubek had 11 settlements with 46 mórgs; the village of Zdunkowo had 2 settlements with 44 mórgs.

It appears this same village was the one called Sedlino in a 1398 document as property of the prebend at the Plock cathedral (Kod. Maz., 123). The date of founding of the parish and church is not known. The present stone church was built with contributions from the parishioners during the years 1856-1860. In 1557 the church-owned village of Sadlno had 3 1/2 lans, 2 zagrody, and 1 craftsman in Jan’s section; 2 zagrody belonged to the manorial farmstead of Slomkowo; Albert Jaronowski’s section had 1 lan, 1 cens., and 2 zagrody; Anna Ziemiecka’s section had 5 lans and 3 zagrody; and Ruskowski’s section had 7 lans and 2 craftsmen. (Pawinski, Wielkopolska, Vol. II, p. 30).

Sadlno parish, of Nieszawa deanery, has 2,790 souls. [Br{onis_aw} Ch{lebowski}

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, p. 200]

Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Fall 2003 Rodziny.

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Sanok

A county seat [miasto powiatowe], at 49 degrees 35' 30" north latitude and 39 degrees 53' east longitude measured from Ferro [by modern Greenwich reckoning 22 degrees 12'], built on a hill descending steeply to the valley of the San River, 362 meters above sea level, and 72 above the river. This elevation stretches to the northwest in a narrow strip interrupted by the bed of the Sanoczka river. Farther to the west this strip forms a division between the San and Wislok rivers. To one approaching from the east the town is picturesque; houses and smaller buildings crown the summit of the steep hill. Two structures standing on the outskirts of the town give Sanok the appearance of a fortified citadel: to the east, above the river, is a royal castle, presently belonging to Austrian governmentÍs starosta; and on the opposite end is a gimnazyum [secondary school], built in 1883. In the central part two churches arise: a parochial church and one belonging to a monastery.

As soon as we leave the railroad station that stands on the grounds of Posada Sanocka [the Settlement of Sanok], we find ourselves in a small town, in which little remains of a more brilliant past. The main street, which wanders up the hill, is built up partly with one-story houses, partly with two-story houses; here, located alongside some shoddy wayside inns, is a rather respectable hotel. This street leads to the four-sided marketplace surrounded by two-story tenements. A narrow little street leads south to the Franciscan church and monastery. The church is dark, vaulted, and sunken into the earth, built of brick and stone of no specific style, as numerous alterations have erased its original characteristics. The castle consists presently of a two-storied tenement with thick walls and narrow, vaulted corridors. The interior halls have no distinguishing characteristics. It stands above the San, the steep banks of which have been reinforced. There are no traces of a stronghold.

North of the castle the terrain declines steeply. The street is built up with wooden houses - among which stands the Greek Catholic church, made of stone - and leads up above the San. Turning to the west and passing several winding streets built up with residences, one comes to the other end of the town, where the parish church stands; its construction was begun in 1874 and has not yet been finished. Its interior arrangement is temporary. Farther to the west are the gimnazjum and several houses with small gardens, which belong partly to the gmina of Posada Sanocka.

The town is paved and fairly clean. It has 318 houses and 5,121 inhabitants (3,029 male, 2092 female). In terms of religion there are 2,073 Roman Catholics, 902 Greek Catholics, 17 Protestants, and 2,129 Jews. In terms of ethnicity (per the Spec. Ortsrepert. for 1883), 4,262 were Poles, 551 Ruthenians, 270 Germans, and 21 others. Military personnel number 601 individuals. Due to the extensive meadows in Posada Sanocka and Posada Olchowska there is cavalry stationed there, and in Posada Olchowska there is a government-owned stud farm. In the town there is a public garden, as it were, with a restaurant.

Immediately on the other side of the San there is a large forest and the so-called "queen's well," a very beautiful spot for excursions. The townÍs population is employed mainly in handicrafts and agriculture. The soil is fertile and clayish. On market days, in addition to the activity of the Jewish populace, one meets Polish peasants from the neighboring valleys. Their distinctive bearing and their cloaks cause Ruthenian gorale [mountain-dwellers] to stand out among them, as in RymanÑw.

The accumulation of various offices and the presence of the military have increased prosperity in Sanok. The following government offices are located there: that of the starosta, with a branch office; a tax office (initially in Lisko); a circuit court; a national prosecutor's office; a treasury prosecutor's office; a commodities control office, with a tobacco and stamp store; an office of weights and measures; and finally a post and telegraph office. The circuit court, created in 1885, covers 76.5 square milas [1 mila = about 7.4 km.], (412 settlements, 386 rural districts, 242,870 inhabitants). In this circuit are a delegated municipal court and 9 county courts (Baligrod, Bircza, Rrzozow [sic, surely a typo for Brzozow], Bukowsko, Dynow, Lisko, Lutowiska, Rymanow, and Ustrzyki Dolne). The treasury prosecutor's office covers the counties of Brzozow, Dobromil, Jaslo, Krosno, Lisko, and Sanok Autonomous authorities consist of county and municipal councils.

The municipal council consists of the mayor, assistant mayor, 3 officials, and the doctor. The gmina's active ../assets are worth 538,779 Rhenish zlotys, and passive ones 124,444; annual income is 40,777. The ../assets consist of buildings, capital, and land (180 morgs of farmland, 31 of meadows, 13 of pastureland, and 50 of forests; the minor estate has 256 morgs of farmland, 49 of meadows, 119 of pastureland, and 338 of forests). Church institutions are the Roman Catholic parish (of Sanok deanery), the Franciscan monastery, the Greek Catholic parish, and the rabbinate. There are two elementary schools with 4 classrooms, one for males, one for females. The 8-classroom gimnazjum was founded as a communal school in 1880, but by 1881 it had already been converted to a national one; it has 329 students.

In the town there are 6 lawyers, 2 notaries, 5 doctors, and a pharmacy. The Jewish shops are poor. To promote industry and trade, a department of the Galician credit society was created in Sanok, as well as a county loan society that has 3,654 members with 26,738 shares and annual payments of 1,521,821 Rhenish zlotys. In 1866 a fund for industrialists and craftsmen was created from contributions, with a capital of 1,807 Rhenish zlotys. A shelter for the poor was founded by the county office in 1857; a fund for paupers existing since 1485, of unknown origin, has 3,414 Rhenish zlotys in property, and a fund for invalids was founded in 1853 to commemorate the visit to Sanok of Emperor Franz Jozef I in 1853.

Sanok is an ancient grod [military defensive fortification or citadel], the capital of an ancient ziemia [land, district, province], of a minor castellan, and of a grod-affiliated starosta. Sanok developed during the days of the Ruthenian princes, probably on the grounds of the Posada. It is mentioned in a document from 1339 (Kodeks dyplomatyczny Polski, Bartosz. [TranslatorÍs note: presumably Volume III, ed. Bartoszewicz, Warszawa 1858]). In 1366 it received a charter under Magdeburg law from King Kazimierz the Great. The king rebuilt the castle and fortified the town. On 2 May 1417 Wladyslaw Jagiello married Elzbieta Pilecka in the parish church and celebrated the wedding in the castle. We have court records from that citadel as early as 1423 (in Volume XI of Akta grodzkie i ziemskie) [Translator's note: full name Akta grodzkie i ziemskie z czasÑw Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z Archiwum tzw. Bernardynskiego w Lwowie, Lwow; vol. XI of this series was published in 1886]), and thus before the establishment of Polish law in Ruthenia (which occurred in 1435). Fragments of even older verdicts have been preserved, for instance from 1388 (AGZ., VIII, no. 17) and 1402 (ibid., vol. VII, no. 23). In 1377 Wladyslaw Opolski founded the Franciscan monastery outside the town walls, and later Elzbieta (mother of King Louis of Hungary) moved it to the spot where it now stands. At the same time the Roman Catholic parish church was built, the foundation of which is ascribed to Kazimierz the Great. The parish's endowment was increased by Wladyslaw Jagiello.

The original fortification of the town consisted of fences, which the neighboring villages mended (AGZ, XI, 339)... [Omitted: a section detailing which village was responsible for repairing which section of fence as of 1448.] ... In 1448 the town was stricken by plague, due to which courts were suspended for four weeks (AGZ, XI, no. 2533), and in 1470 there was a fire. Kazimierz Jagiellonczyk renewed the charter establishing in Sanok an excise tax and warehouse for goods exported from Ruthenia to Hungary, and exempting merchants who came for markets from all fees. In 1510 Zygmunt I permitted the laying of pipes for conveying water through royal property, stipulating free water for the needs of the castle. He permitted the townsmen to take out loans of 100 grzywnas for this purpose, so long as they applied the profits on behalf of the town. After the death of King Zygmunt I, Queen Bona Sforza stayed in Sanok, and she rebuilt and decorated the parish church. She also had a well built on the other side of the San, to this day still called the "Queen's well."

In 1552 Izabela, the widow of HungaryÍs Janos Zapolya, exiled by Castaldo, commander of Emperor Ferdinand I's forces, stayed in Sanok. She received the Sanok citadel from King Zygmunt August for her upkeep. In 1620 the Sejm approved a resolution to fortify the town, in view of its position on the border. It is unknown how this resolution was carried out, but during the Swedish invasion under King Charles X Gustavus, and particularly in 1657, Sanok suffered greatly at the hands of Ispan, the commander of Rakoczy's forces [Gyùrgy II Rakoczy, Prince of Transylvania]. A 1665 inspection lists 8 potters, 16 shoemakers, 11 bakers, 4 stallkeepers, and 10 fisheries. Earlier there had also been 10 weavers. After the war's desolation, on the outskirts of the town there was only on lan being worked by 5 peasants living outside the town; the other lans remained empty. A wall was built around the castle, but it required repairs for which the income from the starosta's office was insufficient. The castleÍs duty was collected at customs houses in Krosno, Rymanow, Brzozow, Tyrawa, Szczawne, Komancza, Jacmierz, Solinka, Prusiek, Kulaszne, Besko and Surowica. 15 years later a fire destroyed the town and the parish church, which was not rebuilt until 1705, by pastor Franciszek Gozlinski. A 1765 inspection lists a new wooden town hall, several dozen inns, and craftsmen: shoemakers, butchers, bakers, weavers, and fishers. The large number of inns is explained by frequent meetings of nobles to draw up contracts that took place there on the feast of St. PaulÍs Conversion.

The castle, which is surrounded by an old wall, had two stories, with a courtroom and residence for officials on the lower, and on the upper a hall and rooms threatened by ruin and cracked with age. A bridge on stone columns led to the gate, by which stood a vaulted building for citadel records and a tower in which sentences were served. The San undermined and ate away the castle's stone until it teetered on the very edge. According to an inventory of church property, the rebuilt parish church burned down in 1728; the protruding walls were torn down on orders of the Austrian government, and the plaza was sold. Ser-vices and the activities of the parish were moved to the monastery, where they remained until 1874. There were Communist Fathers at the parish since 1724, and Rev. Gozlinski used the title of "provost" [Note - ks. komunisci, "Communist Fathers," has nothing to do with later uses of the word "Communist," but refers to a particular group of priests]. Due to lack of evidence it is unknown whether they maintained schools there, as they usually did. At the parish there were benfices: chaplains of St. Anne and of the Assumption. In addition, on the outskirts of town there was a stone church next to the shelter for the poor, with a provostry established in 1518 by Piotr Tomicki, Bishop of Przemysl.

The citadel's records were transferred at the end of the last century to the Bernardine Archive in Lwow, and part, from 1423 to 1462, was published in volume XI of Akta grodzkie i ziemskie. Sanok is the birthplace (circa 1400) of the famed 15th century humanist, Grzegorz z Sanoka.

There are descriptions of Sanok in Tygodnik Ilustrowany (vol. VII, p. 83) and Klosy (No. 1091). J. A. Knapp researched the flora of Sanok district (Sprawozd. komisyi fizyogr., vol. III). According to treasurer's lists from 1770, the Sanok grod - affiliated starosta's office, in the province of Ruthenia, district of Sanok, covered the city of Sanok, with the castle and the wojt's office, as well as the villages of Stroze Wielkie and Male, and Dabrowka Ruska. It was owned by Jozef Wandalin z Konczyc Mniszech, who paid a kwarta of 4,117 zlotys, 29 pence [ i. e., grosz, a coin comparable to a penny], and a hyberna of 687 zlotys, 17 pence. After its seizure in 1786 by the Austrian government, Mniszech exchanged it, except for the town itself, for the hereditary estates of Szumin, which were occupied for the salt-works; the castle itself was given to the gmina.

Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Fall 2001 Rodziny.

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Sczepanowo (Schepanowo in German)

In the past, Sczepanowo was known as Szczepankowo and Sczepancino. In the year 1345 it was known as Sczepancovo. In the year 1357 there was a Catholic Church and a small settlement in the region of Mogilno. The Church was part of the Dekanat (Deanery) of Znin. About 5 km to the south is a Post Office in Barcin near the Lake and on the road to Mogilno. It is near the villages of Szczepankowo and Wojcin. There is a parish school. There is a railway station in Janikowo (Amsee) within 15 km's distance.

The greater village consists of 46 houses and 547 inhabitiants; there is also a smaller rural settlement of 31 houses and 155 inhabitants. In total: 77 houses, 702 inhabitants (439 Catholics, 255 Protestants, 8 Jews). It consists of 578 hectares of which 547 are dedicated to general agriculture.

In the year 1331 the Knights of the Teutonic Order destroyed the Church in Szczepanowo. In 1345 the Church was part of the Dekanat (Deanery) of Gniezno.

Wincenty dedicated (gave) the village of Szczepanowo to soltys (village administrator) Witalis, son of Zbilut, so that it might gain potential settlers (settling according to the Magdeburg Laws).

The village of Szczepanowo was an ancient possession of the nobility of Gniezno, confirmed in the year 1357 by King Kazimierz Wielki (1333-1370). About the year 1361 there came into being a second settlement called Szczepankowo Mlode.

In the year 1577 Szczepanowo was comprised of about 10 Slad (1000 to 1500 Morgs) and 2 peasant farmers with farm buildings and gardens. Near the village were dug up a large cemetery and cinerary urns. According to legends, about 100 "kmieæ"s (farmers with min. about 40 acres' land) were said to live there, among them many bee-keepers.

Local population recalls Polish and French Armies' marches. In the Year 1331 a Catholic Church under the patronage of St. Barthelemy must have already existed. In the year 1848 a new Church of brick with a decorated steeple was built. Parish priests' possession is described by Laski.

The Parish numbering 2935 people comprised of the villages of  Annowo, Biale Bloto, Bielawy, Bielawki, Chomiaza, Ksieza, Kierzkowo, Krotoszyn, Krzekotowo, Krzrkotowko, Mikolajkowo, Radlowo, Rydzek, Slawoszewo, Slawoszewko, Stary Dwor, Szczepanowo, Szczepankowo, Szeroki Kamien, Wiktorowo, Wojcin and Wolica.

A branch of the church is to be found at Wojcin. The Parish Church in Kierzków no longer exists. Parish Schools are in Slawoszewo and Szczepanowo.

Szczepanowo was incorporated by the Prussian Government into the domain of Mogilno.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. x, p. 845]

Translated by Jim Piechorowski (June, 2005) , PGSA Member #6151 / 6005; families: Piechorowski / Piechurowski

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Sędzin

Current administrative location: Sędzin, Gmina Zakrzewo, Powiat Aleksandrów, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Sędzin, Powiat Nieszawa, Gubernia Warszawske, Vistula Land, Russian Empire.

In 1252, it was know as Zandyno and in 1366 as Sandzyno. Sędzin is a village, colony, and manor farm near the village of Bachorza and located in powiat Nieszawa and gmina Sędzin. The village belongs to the parish of Sędzin. The village is located at a distance of 21 verst from Nieszawa. Sędzin is 1 verst from the border of Kreis Poznań. The parish has a wooden church. The colony has 207 inhabitants and the peasants have 1445 morgs of land. The village and manor farm have 240 inhabitants and 191 morgs of land for the peasants. In 1827, Sędzin had 35 homes with 323 inhabitants.

In 1881, the Sędzin folwark was separated from the Raciążek estate and had 1184 morgs of total area (780 morgs of arable farm land, 254 morgs of meadows, 64 morgs of pasture, 50 morgs of forest, 36 morgs of unused land, 19 brick buildings, 12 wooden buildings, and a 13 and 15 half field crop rotation. Sędzin has unused forests, a windmill, and a mill.

Sędzin is the former estate of the Bishop of Płock. In 1252, Kazimierz, the Duke of Kujawy, gave some freedoms to the village. In 1366, Jacussius de Sandzyno was the canon of Płock (Kod. Maz.,16, 78). In 1750, a wooden church was issued by the Płock chapter and was under the patronage of Saint Mateusz. In 1842, the church was restored and a brick rectory was erected and then tiled. The Sędzin parish belongs to the Nieszawa Deanery. The parish has 1180 souls.

The Sędzin gmina belongs to the III district court of law and precinct that is located in Radziejowie. In 1867, the Sędzin gmina totaled 22,864 morgs of land, with 15,748 belonging to estates and 7116 belonging to the peasants. There are 4526 inhabitants.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.10, p.465].

Translated by Al Wierzba, May 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Sekowa Wola

Also often called Wola Sekowa, with Jaworowa Wola and the settlement of Rostoki, a village in Sanok county, on the right bank of the Pielnica (a tributary of the Wislok), west of Nowotaniec, on the left side of the highway from the railroad running from Nowosielce - Gniewosz to Bukowsko. The settlement at the highest elevation is Rostoki (461 meters), which consists of forestry lodges in the Jodlowy las; next highest is Jaworowa Wola (445 meters) at the source of the Sanoczka river; and finally the village itself, situated to the north (448 meters). Including the major estate and settlements, Sekowa Wola consists of 178 houses and 1,005 inhabitants (491 males, 514 females), 135 Roman Catholics (parish in Nowotaniec), 854 Greek Catholics (parish in Sekowa Wola), and 14 Jews. In the village is the Greek Catholic church of St. Michal, built of wood, and an elementary school. The major estate (owned by Jak. Wiktor) covers 398 morgs of farmland, 60 of meadows and gardens, 76 of pastureland, and 667 of forest; the minor estate has 1,115 morgs of farmland, 136 of meadows and gardens, 296 of pastureland, and 658 of forests. The parish belongs to the Diocese of Przemysl, deanery of Sanok. It includes Jaworowa Wola, Nagorzany, Nadolany, and Nowotaniec. Wola Sekowa is bordered on the east by Nowotaniec, on the north by Nadolany, on the south by Bukowsko, and on the west by forests covering the slopes of the Bukowiec range. [Mac. (Dr. Maurycy Maciszewski) Vol. X, pp. 468-469].

Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Fall 2001 Rodziny.

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Seroczki

Current administrative location: Seroczki, Gmina Zakrzewo, Powiat Aleksandrów, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Seroczki, Powiat Nieszawa, Gubernia Warszawske, Vistula Land, Russian Empire.

A village, manor farm, and estate located in powiat Nieszawa and gmina Straszewo. The village belongs to the parish of Straszewo. There are 242 inhabitants, 1030 morgs belonging to the estate and 215 morgs for the peasants. In 1827, the village had 16 homes with 155 inhabitants. In 1780, the park manor chapel was erected by the Seroczki estate landlords, the Bogatko family.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.10, p.455].

Translated by Al Wierzba, May 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Siedliska Bogusz

Link to PGST translation - text and photos.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw. Translated by Martin Kurtin.

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Siemaski

A small peasant village in the parish and rural district of Kopciowo, Sejny county. It is 26 versts from the town of Sejny and has 7 houses with 80 inhabitants. The land area is 422 morgs. In 1827, there were 6 houses and 35 people. It was part of the estate of Justyanowo.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1893, vol. 10, p. 539].

Translated by Dorothy Leivers, Hadlow, Kent, England, Dorfleiv@aol.com (May 2004)

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Sikorowo

Current administrative location: Sikorowo, Gmina Inowrocław, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Sikorowo, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.

In 1250, it was known as Sycorovo. A village and folwark located in powiat Inowrocław. It is located about 5 1/2 kilometers southeast of Inowrocław. Sikorowo belongs to the Góra Parish. The post office is located in Łojewo. The railway station is located in Inowrocław.

Sikorowo was the eternal property of the Włocławek chapter. On October 6, 1250, Duke Kazimierz confirmed this ownership with all his political powers vested in him (Dokum. Kuj. Ulanowskiego, str. 185 i Kod. Dypl. Pol. Rzyszcz., II, p. r. 1252). It was taken by the Prussian government and incorporated into the Inowrocław domain. In 1583, the settlement had an area of 4 1/2 łan (one quarter of the land where for 2 crofts) and one tailor.

Currently, the village lists 13 houses with 130 inhabitants. The Sikorowo folwark has 6 houses with 109 inhabitants located on 226 hectares of land. In 1884, the income generated from the land was equal to 2721 marks. The owner is Józef Mański.

The village and folwark combine to equal 19 houses with 239 inhabitants (207 Catholics and 32 Protestants) and 291 hectares (226 hectare of farmland and 29 hectare of meadows).

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.10, p.607].

Translated by Al Wierzba, December 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Siniarzewo

Current administrative location: Siniarzewo, Gmina Zakrzewo, Powiat Aleksandrów, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Siniarzewo, Powiat Nieszawa, Gubernia Warszawske, Vistula Land, Russian Empire.

As recently as 1789, it was traditionally known as Swiniarzewo. A village, colony, and manor farm positioned above the Bachorza valley and located in powiat Nieszawa and gmina Bądkowo. The village belongs to the parish of Siniarzewo. The village is located at a distance of 14 verst from Nieszawa. The colony has 57 inhabitants and 98 morgs of land. The village has 181 inhabitants and 707 morgs of land. Of the 707 morgs: the estate’s land has 461 morgs of farmland and 122 morgs of meadows, while the peasants have 38 morgs. In 1827, Siniarzewo had 11 homes with 135 inhabitants.

At the end of the 16th century, the village landlord and a reformation zealot, Filip Zakrzewski, stole the rectory from the lands and then destroyed the church. Only Jan Umiński, the landlord in 1642, erected a new wooden church, which is still there. The church is under the patronage of the Apostle Saint Jakób. The church was built with two chapels. The Siniarzewo parish belongs to the Nieszawa Deanery. The parish has 730 souls.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.10, p.617].

Translated by Al Wierzba, May 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Sinki

Current administrative location: Sinki, Gmina Bądkowo, Powiat Aleksandrów, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Szwinki, Powiat Nieszawa, Gubernia Warszawske, Vistula Land, Russian Empire.

A folwark (manor farm) by the village of Łowiczek. The village is located in powiat Nieszawa.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.12, p.91].

Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Sitno - Sitno Male - Sitno Wielkie

Sitno Male and Wielkie, villages, Bydgoszcz powiat, 14 km. southeast of Mrocza and 6 km. north of Strzelewo (Strehlau), Bydgoszcz-Pila railway station; the area is 114 meters above sea level.

1). Sitno Male, German Wilhelmsort, formerly Klein Sittno, has a Protestant church and a post office; it is served by the Catholic parish in Dabrowka; it has 18 houses, 237 inhabitants (77 Catholic, 160 Protestant), and measures 499 hectares in area (463 of fields, 3 of meadows). In 1489 it belonged to the Strzeleckis. In 1583 Andrzej Krosinski owned here 1 settled lan, 1 gardeners' lan, and 1 craftsmen's lan; Waclaw Grabinski owned 1 1/2 lans, and 1 gardeners' lan; and the Gogolinskis owned 2 settled lans. In 1860 the Protestant congregation numbered 1,482 souls in 20 settlements, along with 2,000 Catholics.

2). Sitno Wielkie, German Gross Schittno, formerly Sittno, borders on Sitno Male and lies on the highway from Mrocza to Bydgoszcz; it is served by the Catholic parish in Dabrowka, and by the Protestant congregation and post office in Sitno Male. It has 14 houses, 125 inhabitants (30 Catholic, 95 Protestant) and measures 252 hectares (227 of fields, 2 of meadows, 2 of forests). In 1483 each of these owners possessed 1 settled lan and 1 gardeners' lan: Jan and Stanislaw Poczalkowski, Wojciech Kruszynski, Aleksander Pieczewski, Pawel Sicinski and Jan Derpowski. In more recent times the settlements have been part of the Wojnowo estates.-E. Callier... Sitno, German Sittnow, formerly Schitten, in 1505 Szythno, 1546 Szithna, a village in Zlotow powiat, served by the Mrocza railway station and the Catholic parish in Wiecbork; 1,617 hectares. In 1885 it had 89 houses, 110 hearths, 622 inhabitants (2 Catholic, 620 Protestant). Sitno formerly belonged to the Zebrzydowskis. Up to 1739 a Protestant church existed here, a branch of the one in Peperzyn; today the Lutherans have a chapel here. Every year they celebrate May 22nd as a day of prayer in memory of a major hailstorm (see Der Kreis Flatow by Schmitt, page 268). The 1-class Protestant school had 135 children in 1887.-Rev. Frydrychowitcz.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, p. 629].

Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Fall 1997 Bulletin.

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Skalat/Stary Skalat

Link to translation by Eugene J. Markow and Ela Potepa for the Skalat Website home page.(Feb 2004).

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Skorupki

1.) also called Skorupy, peasant village, in the district of Minsk Mazowiecki, township and parish Kolbiel, it has 80 inhabitants, 8 settlements, 186 acres was part of the estate of Kolbiel. 2) Skorupki, peasant village, in the district of Sokolów Podlaski, township and parish Wyrozeby, it has 19 houses, 145 inhabitants, 547.2 acres. In the year 1827 there were 36 houses, 194 inhabitants, parish Kozuchówek. 3) Skorupki, in the district of Sokolów Podlaski, refer to Kobulany-Skorupki. 4) Skorupki, in the district of Sierpc, refer to Kowalewo-Skorupki. 5) Skorupki, in the district of Przasnysz, refer to Grabowo-Skorupki.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, pp. 703]

Translated By Steven Skoropowski

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Sk~epe

Translation available through PGS of California http://pgsca.org/reprints.html

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Skladan~ce

Skladance, a peasant-owned village, Lida powiat, in the 4th political district, gmina, rural district and treasury-owned estate of Radun, 5 km. from the gmina, 23.5 km. from Lida, and 44 km. from Wasiliszki; it has 25 houses, 204 Catholic inhabitants (in 1864 there were 81 souls per the rewizja).

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, p. 680].

Translated by Barbara Proko, Boulder, CO and edited by Fred Hoffman. From the PGSA Summer 1998 Bulletin.

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Skoszewo

Skoszewo: a village in Chojnice county [Powiat], served by the post office in Studzienica and the Catholic parish in Legno (about 15 km. away), 590 hectares (1 of forests, 11 of meadows, 308 of farmland). In 1895 there were 17 houses, 24 hearths, 134 Catholics, 22 Protestants; there was a one-class Catholic school. Skoszewo lies on the northern edge of Lake Sominskie, on the northern border of Chojnice powiat, and north of it extends Lake Skoszewskie. An inspection by Szaniawski in 17 10 (on page 69 of his report) stated that Skoszewo paid a Mass-tithe of 2 bushels of Tartarian buckwheat. In Waldemar's 1313 charter dividing Slupsk district from Pomerania, the stream "Zcossow," flowing by Skoszewo, is the border (see P. U. B. von Perlbach, page 617). According to an inspection by the Tuchola starosta's office in 1664, Skoszewo paid 36 florins, 20 pence. [Ks. Fr.]

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, pg. 708].

Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Summer 1999 Bulletin.

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Skrzyszów

1.) a village in Tarnów county, consisting of three parts: Skrzyszów, Ładna, and Śrędziny. The first part is densely populated (400 houses), on a stream flowing from near Zalasowa through Gumniska and Tarnów to the Biała (on the right bank); the second part, with the largest tannery in Galicia, consists of 26 houses and lies on the road from Tarnów to Pilzno; the third (43 houses) is north of the previous one. This village developed amid fertile soil and favorable conditions created by its nearness to Tarnów. It has a very old parish with a wooden church, a community school, 472 houses (3 on the grounds of the major estate, property of the princes Sanguszko) and 2,428 inhabitants (1,188 men, 1,240 women), 2,388 of them Roman Catholic and 40 Jewish. It has a district loan association with a capital of 2,070 Rhenish złotys. The major estate [land owned by nobles] has an area of 307 mórgs of farmland, 52 of meadows and gardens, 108 of pastures, and 34 of forests; the minor estate [land owned by peasants] has 2,550 mórgs of farmland, 446 of meadows, 696 of pastures, and 167 of forests.
The parish is said to have existed as early as 1313. Długosz says (in Liber bene-ficiorum, I, 605) that in 1416 the parish was attached to the collegiate church in Tarnów, to which it belonged until 1736, when it was once more made a parish. It is in Pilzno deanery of Tarnów diocese, and includes two wólka, Ładna and Śrędziny, as well as Wola Rzędzińska; Wałki; Jodłówka; and part of Rzędzin. The villages always belonged to the Tarnów estate. In 1581 (according to Pawin´ski in Małopolska, p. 264) it belonged to Prince Ostrogski and had 66 kmieci on 33 łany, 6 zagrody with land, 30 tenant farmers with live-stock, 27 tenant farmers with no livestock, 7 craftsmen, 4 kijacy [peasants living on the outskirts of a town or village entitled to bring meat to market and sell it] and a duda [a musician, player of bagpipes]. In addition the sołtys had 2 łany and 9 zagrody.
It borders on the west with Gumniska and Zawada, on the south with Łękowica [now called Łękawica] and Szynwałd, on the east with Pogórska Wola, and on the north with Rzędzin. [Mac. {Maurycy Maciszewski}]

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [ Vol. 11, pp. 734-735]

Additional information in supplementary volume 15-2, page 592:

Skrzyszów, in 1344 Skrissow, a village in Tarnów county. In 1344 it received a German-law charter along with other properties of Spicymir, castellan of Kraków. In 1415 Jan of Tarnów, castellan of Kraków, sold to Michał, rector of the church in Skrzyszów, the rent of 8 grzywny [an ancient silver coin] from Tarnów for 160 grzywny, for endowing an altar in the Tarnów collegiate church (Kod. kat. krak. II, 402). In 1581 Prince Ostrogski paid tax here on 66 settlements, 33 łany, 6 zagrody, 30 tenant farmers, 27 paupers, 7 craftsmen, 4 kijacy, 1 duda, 2 łany belonging to the sołtys, and 9 zagrody belonging to the sołtys. Paprocki cites an interesting act of ennoblement for Stanisław, the local wójt, issued in 1546 (Herby, p. 137). From him came the Krzyszowskis or Skrzyszowskis, Gryf coat of arms. See Sukmanie.
[The entry on Sukmanie, on page 630, is brief: Sukmanie, in 1331 Suąmayn, a village in Brzesko county (Galicia). In 1331 Spicimir, castellan of Kraków, exchanged his village Sukmanie for Skrzyszów, the hereditary property of Leonard (Kod. mał., II, p. LI).]
[According to the Tarnów diocese Website, the address of Skrzyszów parish is: Parafia p. w. św. Józefa Oblubieńca NMP, Skrzyszów 187, 39-103 Ostrów, POLAND, e-mail skrzyszow@diecezja.tarnow.pl.]

Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Fall 2004 Rodziny

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Skwierawy

Current administrative location: Skwierawy, Gmina Studzienice, Powiat Bytów, Województwo Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Squirawen, Kreis Berent, Regierungsbezirk Danzig, Westpreußen, German Empire.

In 1710 it was called Skwieranie. The German name is Squirawen. It is a peasant village that was issued on the basis of a grant by the Royal Kingdom during the years of 1662, 1663, 1665, and 1750. It is located in powiat Kościerzyna. It's post office is located in Wygoda. It belongs to the Lipusz Parish. There are 5 farmers that own their own land and 10 crofts (enclosed sections of farmland). It covers an area of 1008 ha. (18 ha. forests, 8 ha. meadows, and 287 arable farmland). In 1885, there were 18 houses, 34 homesteads, and 173 Catholic inhabitants. There is a catholic school in the Skwierawy.

In 1710, the Mesznego records indicate, that villagers contributed 4 bushels of rye and the same amount of oats (ob. Wizyt. Szaniawskiego, str. 13). In 1661, Stanisław von Kux-Solikowski from Parchowo, gave a lease and privilege of leman to Adam Oller and his descendants. Half of the land was already leased by his father, Benedykt Oller. In the summer, he is allowed to fish in the lake and sell to those people on this property. The payments were: 20 florins for Polish rent, 1 pokow of honey, provide 3 wagons to Gdańsk, and other ordinary duties.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.10, p.743].

Translated by Al Wierzba, August 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Slawecin

Link to PGST translation - text and photos.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw. Translated by Martin Kurtin.

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Sławęcin

Current administrative location: Sławęcin, Gmina Inowrocław, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Slabencin, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.

1) Also known as Słabęcin, officially known as Slabencin, and called Slavaczino in other documents. An estate located in powiat Inowrocław. It is located about 5 kilometers northwest of Inowrocław, which has a post office and railway station. Sławęcin is located on a stream that flows into the Noteci River. Sławęcin belongs to the Kościelec Parish. There is a railway station located about 4 kilometers away in Jaksice. Sławęcin has 4 houses with 77 inhabitants (54 Catholics and 23 Protestants) and a total land area equaling 234 hectares (207 hectare of farmland and 18 hectare of meadows). The income generated from the farmland is equal to 25.46 marks and from the meadows is equal to 23.50 marks. Sławęcin specializes in cattle breeding. The estate belongs to D. Klawiter.

In 1488, the Bishop of Włocławek, Piotr of Bnin, raised the Kościelec Church to the ranks of a collegiate, through funds set aside by tithes (religious contributions) from the Sławęcin estate. Between the years of 1560 and 1582, Sławęcin, including 6 crofts, were inherited by Andzrej Modlibóg. Sławęcin can be compared to Sławęcinek.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.10, p.776].

Translated by Al Wierzba, December 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Sławęcinek

Current administrative location: Sławęcinek, Gmina Inowrocław, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Slabencinek, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.

1) Also known as Słabęcinek or Sławęcin Mniejszy, but officially known as Slabencinek. It was called Slavaczino in 1505 and Sławęczinko Grodzkie in 1583. A village and folwark located in powiat Inowrocław. It is located about 4 kilometers northwest of the urban district of Inowrocław and borders Sławęcin. Sławęcinek belongs to the Kościelec Parish. There is a post office and railway station located in Inowrocław. Together, with the folwark that has 3 houses with 53 inhabitants and 100 hectares of land, the rural district has 7 houses with 96 inhabitants (89 Catholics and 7 Protestants) and 184 hectares of land (160 hectare of farmland).

By 1480, Sławęcinek already belonged to the Royal Kingdom of Poland. In 1505, after Stanisław Jarocki pledged his association with the King (he became the Marshall of the Crown), King Aleksandr granted him the ownership of Sławęcinek (this translation of the history may be erroneous) (Kod. Dypl. Pol. Rzyszcz., II, 977). In 1565, 2 łan were rented to the peasants for 2 złoty and 24 groszy. The folwark, combined with the estate's 4 1/2 łan, produced an income of 73 złoty and 24 groszy. In 1583, there was a 1 łan settlement and 2 crofts. In 1771, Sławęcinek paid a sum of 100 złoty per quarter of land and was held by Antoni Dambski (the Governor of the Brześć Kujawski Voivodeship). After 1793, the Prussian government incorporated Sławęcinek into the Inowrocław domain. The current owner of the Sławęcinek folwark is Manfred Guradze.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.10, p.777].

Translated by Al Wierzba, December 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Slawno

in the County of Gniezno

Slawno, a village and an animal farm in the Gniezno County, 7 km southeast from Kiszkowo and the same distance southwest of Klecko. It has a parish church and a post office, 9 km from an old road to Chwalkow. Slawno used to belong to the Gnieznienski archbishops. Then it was taken away by the Wielkopolski noblemen and subsequently returned to the church by Wladyslaw Odonicz.

As Dlugosz's chronicle has it, as of 1253, the Gniezno archbishop visited Slawno in order to confirm Piotr as a bishop of Poznan. In 1331 the Knights of the Cross plundered Slawno during their invasion on Wielkopolska. The King Kazimierz confirmed that Slawno belonged to Poland by giving it some special privilege in 1357.

In 1579 Slawno belonged to archbishops. As a result of an exchange it became the private property of Alexander Lubienski in 1764, and then of the Wesierscy family. Right by the village there is a hill called the Swedish hill. Slawno was intended to be a city.

St. Mikolaj Church had already been in existence in 1348. In the place of the old church Lubienski had built a new wooden one in 1764. In 1777, St. Jan Nepomucen chapel was added to it. When the church burnt down in 1803, a new brick church was built in 1844.

Since 1771, St. Joseph's Brothers settled by the church. The parish had 2,102 members and they were from: Berkowo, Brudzewko, Dziecmiarki, Glebockie Huby, Glebokie, Hieronimowo, Imiolki, Jozefowo, Kamionek, Myszki, Popkowice, Strzetuszewo, Slawno, Slepowo, Sroczyn, Tomaszewo, Ujazd, Wegorzewo, Wegorzewski Holendry, Witakowice, Zakrzewo, and Zelice.

During the time of the archbishop Laski there was also Rzepczyno, often called "Szyemczyno" or Szyroczyno" (Sroczyn). North of Slawno there is the St. Rozalia chapel which was founded by Jozef Stolzman, the parish priest.

In 1697, Mikolaj Kamienski founded a hospital for the poor (12 beds). Presently, Slawno has 22 houses. It is populated by 199 Catholics. It covers 290 hectares of land (244 of farm land and 7 of pastures).

One hectare of farm land brings 8.62 marks and one hectare of pasture brings 11.75 marks in net income. The animal farm belonging to the manor consists of 8 houses. -It is populated by 120 inhabitants (111 Catholic and 9 Protestant) and it covers 512 hectares of land (244 hectares of farming land, 10 hectares of pasture, and 181 hectares of forests). Woiciech Chelmicki of Zakrzewo is its owner.

Slawno is located in the Dekanat of Pobiedziski. The following is a list of the other churches and their locations:

Location Church
Dabrowka Koscielna
Dziekanowice Sw. Marcina
Lmielno Narodzenia NMP
Jerzykowo Niepokalanego Serca NMP
Kiszkowo Sw. Jana Chrzciciela
Lubowo Sw. Micholaja
Pobiedziska Sw. Michala Archaniola
Pobiedziska Sw. Ducha
Pobiedziska Matki Boskiej Nieustajacej Pomocy
Rejowiec Poznanski Najsw. Serca Pana Jezusa
Waliszewo Sw. Katarzyny
Weglewo Sw. Katarzyny
Wronczyn Sw. Stanislawa BPA

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1880

Submitted by: This translation, by Basia Sloboda, first appeared in the Summer 1993, Vol. X, No.2 issue of "PGST News". (Nov 1997)

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Slawoszewko

Slawoszewko is also known as Slaboszewko or Slawoschewko.

In the year 1523 the village was called Szlaboszewko. In the year 1567 it was a small village belonging to a estate in the Powiat of Mogilnicki, located about 9 km to the south of Barcin, on the road to Mogilino. The region / village is about 102 meter's above sea level and is located in the vicinity of Krzekolowo, Obudno, Szczepanko and Slawoszc.

There is a Catholic Church at Szczepanowo, a Protestant Parish at Slawoszew, a Post Office at Dabrowie and a railroad station at Janikowie about 13 km distant and somewhat further in Mogilino a station already exists.

In the year 1396 the village is known as Slawoszewo. About the year 1579 the village and surrounding area was owned by the Gorecki and Sierski Families: The Gorecki's had 150 to 200 morgs a small settlement with 2 crofts, small farmsteads with a courtyard, buildings and garden. A craftsman also resides here. The Sierski's had 100 to 150 morgs and 3 crofts, small farmsteads with a courtyard, buildings and garden. In the year 1618 there was 2-1/2 Lan, 3 crofts, small farmsteads with a courtyard, buildings and a craftsman. An outlying settlement / hamlet in the last century also belongs to the estate of Goslawa family.

In current times the village is part of the Manor known as "Kleinrode" which contained 8 houses 91 inhabitants of which 46 are Catholic and 45 are Protestants. There are 122 hectares of fields dedicated to agriculture and 1 of meadow. The Manor known as "Slawoszewko" contains 13 houses, 192 inhabitants, of which 113 are Catholics and 79 Protestant, there is 537 hectares of which 509 are agricultural fields. There is also a distillery, Brickwork's and Flocks of Rambouillet sheep.

Translated Jim Piechorowski (June 2005), PGSA Member 6005; families: Piechurowski / Piechorowski 1779

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Sliwice

Sliwice, German name Gro¤ Schliewitz, a church owned village in the Tuchola Forest, on the river Sliwiczka, 25.7 km. northeast of Tuchola, on the edge of Tuchola county. It is about 22 km. from the railroad line Tuchola-Starogard and eastward; it has 1,622 hectares (26 of forests, 281 of meadows, 916 of farmland). In 1868 it had 985 inhabitants; in 1885 it had 175 houses, 231 hearths, and 1,246 inhabitants, 1,142 of them Catholic, 68 Protestant, and 36 Jewish. In 1887 Protestant services were held here for the first time in the school building. There is a pastor, but he does not yet have a church. There is a 4-classroom Catholic school here (four teachers), an agricultural society, a reading room for that society, and a post office (it runs to Czersk). In 1883 the loan society had 9,000 marks in bills of exchange. There are two market fairs here every year.

During the days of August II Sliwice was ravaged by constant war, and as a result the king bestowed on Sliwice a grant entitling it to free wood for firewood and construction from the nearby royal forest, as well as free pasturage and fishing. Frederick the Great confirmed this document. Only recently the treasury bought these rights back partially, paying 178,000 marks for clearing the woods and 24,000 for free pasturage. For the right to fish in the lake they offer 17,000 marks, but the gmina demands more. A percentage of the 204,000 marks is paid annually to the entitled heirs, so that the gmina is now among the wealthiest in the area.

In 1830 the Catholic Church, St. Catherine's, of Swiecie deanery, of government patronage, was rebuilt of brick and stone. On one of the three houses is an inscription dated 1584. At the church there are Societies of Consolation of the Blessed Virgin Mary (since 1819) and of Divine Providence (since 1744), and a sobriety confraternity. The villages of the parish are: Sliwice, Sliwiczki, Lipowo, Krag, Lubocin, Rosochatka, Barlogi, Bieliczek (Silberhof), Loboda, Woziwoda, Jablonka, Kamionka, Bechsteinswalde, Lisiny, Einsidele, Wielka Gaczna, Wildgarten, Gruenthal, Klocek, Biala, Rzepiczna, Glowka, Okoniny Polskie, Rosenthal, Wolfsbruch, Bielska Struga, Linsk, Wadol, Laskie Piece, Zazdrosc, Laski, Lazek, Brzozowe Blota, Pfalzplatz, Gajdowskie, Zdroje, Ludwichowo, Trzebczyny, Sarnowek, Szlachta, Osowek, Starzyska, Osieczno, Wielkie and Male Krowno, Linowek, Brzezno, and Zdrojno. In 1867 there were 6,207 souls in the parish, in 1888 there were 8,030. Since the church has room for 800 people, but up to 2,000 come, it is supposed to be enlarged. In 1867, according to Madalinski's inspection, there was a wooden church here, and the pastor owned 120 morgs. Sliwice, Lazek, Osowko, Linsk and Sliwiczki belonged to the parish; it numbered about 318 souls. Also belonging to the pastorate were lakes Chmielnik and Smug. There was a small garden next to the school; the administrator was Stan. Sadecki (p. 26). Sliwice belonged at that time to the Swiecie starosta.

The locals-Polish through and through-have lost their picturesque attire. Today men and women dress in German style. The people are short in stature; the girls don't let down their hair, but tie it up on the back of their heads. The people say there was a silver mine by the meadows called Rudziski. Now an iron bridge is there, called Srebrny [silver], and nearby is the village Silberhof ["silver manor" in German] or Bieliczek. In addition there are little bits of a shaft still on the surface here. Two mountains lie by the village, next to which were discovered two large circles of tall stones. [Rev. Fr.]

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, pp. 765-766]

Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Fall 1999 Bulletin.

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Slup

In German Slupp or Slupper Muhle. In documents, Starkenberg, Steinwage, 1386. A village on the left bank of the Osa River in Grudziadz county. Post office in Melno; part of Gruta parish, both to the southwest. 1202 hectares (74 in meadow, 1027 in arable land.) In 1885 there were 80 homes, 113 chimneys. There were 533 inhabitants - 390 Catholics, 131 Evangelicals, 9 dissidents and 3 Jews.

Melno lake extends from Slup to Melno and is memorable for the peace concluded on its shores in 1422 between Poland and the Krzyzak Order. Next to the village stretches a new highway from Melno to Lasin. In the middle of the village in the cemetery stands a little chapel to St. Ann, in the place where the old parish church once stood. In 1444 it still existed, because the Last Will of bishop Jan Morgenau established a parish synod to be held there on the Sunday after St. Dionizy (October 9). The church was certainly destroyed at the time of the Krzyzak wars. Stanislaw Myslkowski, a canon of Kruszwica and pastor of Gruta, regained legally 6 wloki establishing the endowment of the parish. Around 1750 there still existed old foundations (See Lost Churches, by Fr. Fankidejski, p. 85). Services are held in St. Ann’s chapel only once a year, on St. Ann’s day, July 26. The church wloki as well as the village were joined to the parish of Gruta. The pastor received a salary of 1 bushel of rye from 62 wloki and oats from a wloka. (See the Visitation of Strzesz from the year 1667, p.451). In 1706 jaknakowoz only half a bushel was given, about which the visitator complains (See the Visitation of Potocki, p.803). (For a tradition about Slup which king Chrobry was supposed to set up here, according to the historian Jan Dlugosz, see the article Osa vol. VII, p.616).

Because here was found the only ford across the Osa, the old trade route to the Baltic shore passed here. For that reason the Krzyzaks built here already in the time of the Grand Master Sangershausen (1258-1274) a fortified castle on the right shore . When that was destroyed by the pagan Prussians, a new castle, called Starkenberg, was erected before 1326 right at the Slup mill on the left bank. After 1388 one hears nothing about it. Grand Master Konrad von Thierberg drew up the first Krzyzak privilege for the village in 1285, bestowing on the Soltys Konrad 68 wloki in Starkenberg with the purpose of planting German settlers there. The soltys claimed 8 free wloki; for the church he assigned 6 free; the rest were supposed to pay the czynsz after 2 years. The inn belonged to Zamek Rogozinski. The soltys had also free fishing rights in Lake Melno and he was to receive a salary of 1/3 part of court fines (kar sadowych).

In 1333 the wojt of Rogozno, Frederick von Spira confers on the soltys in Starkenberg Mikolaj of Lindenau 4 wloki in the Rogozno forest, in German called Ulgau, in order to furnish firewood from it , with this reservation, that this plot never be cleared to make arable land.

In 1377 the Grand Master Winrych von Kniprode, staying at Zamek Rogozinski, confers on the soltys Nicolaus (Klaus) Schoeneck 4 wloki in Slup free of tloka# and 3 parts of court-levied fines, excepting road tolls (sady drozne); from others 2 wloki, he had to pay the czynsz; for himself he had free fishing rights in the Osa, but only with small equipment. Damage books (ksiegi szkodowe) from 1414 calculate the losses of the village at 1730 grzywnas. Czynsz-registers from 1435 tell us that to the village belonged 68 wloki, and of those 4 were soltys-, 6 church-, 6 in vassalage (lemanskie), an inn and 51 wloki czynsz and of the settled.

In 1526 king Zygmunt renewed the Krzyzak privilege; from 54 wloki the settlers had to pay 15 skoyetzes per wloka. The soltys possessed 8 free wloki and the inn, for which he was obliged for war service in light armor. He had free fishing rights in Lake Melno for his own needs, for which he could use all nets, with the exception of niewodu. If in the village there remain assembled butchers’-, bakers-, or clothiers’- stalls, which can happen only with the permission of the soltys, at that time the soltys will receive 1 part; we, however will receive 2 (of the fines -GRS). Given in Gdansk. In the same year the king renews the vassal-privilege for 6 wloki; confirming also the right of fishing in Lake Melno. Beyond that (Zato) he was to perform army service and other work according to custom.

The Lustration of 1686 shows in Slup 4 gburs with 2 wloki, from which each paid 40 florins; 8 half-gburs with 1 wloka, who paid 20 florins and performed tloka. All had settled only just lately. In 1727 the subchamberlain Jan Gruszczynski, the administrator of the economy of Rogozno, extends to the landlords Stanislaw Rynkowski, Michael Swoboda, Jakob Klucznik and their comrades emphitheutic possessions for a further 40 years, adding that they could fell free wood from the forests of the starostaship.

In 1723 the soltys was Andrzej Czeszynski (There are many Cieszynskis in the Lasin parish books. -GRS). The Visitation of 1743 informs that the inhabitants of the village were Catholics. Only around 1773 were they raped and expelled and Lutheran settlers imported who established for themselves a school. By order of the pastor of Gruta the building was dismantled. Soon two parties formed in the village: the German and the Polish; the first performed compulsory labor in Hansfelde (Jankowice?), the second in Zamek Rogozinski. Re: hereditary possessions: 8 wloki of the soltys and 3 vassalages were later so divided that in 1787 four free soltys-ships were counted, namely: Antoni Cieszynski’s, Michael Kurzenski’s, Andrzej Zietarski’s and Joseph Rafinski’s as well as 7 vassal possessions. The freeing of the serfs occurred here in 1838 in this manner: 20 peasants received 84 wloki, 29 morgs and 252 sq. rods as their own that they could pass on to heirs. (See Froelich: Geschichte des Graudenzer Kreises, p. 322).

In 1876 a clay pot was found here in which was found a silver seal-ring, 8 silver acorns, a silver laseczek (certainly buttons for a uniform), and 3 silver rubles from the year 1729; the newest ruble was from the year 1750. (See Pielgrzym, 1876, #40). Earlier however a bronze cinerary urn was found here . -Ks. Fr

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, pp. 849,850].

Submitted & translated by Gerald R. Schmidt, Pittsburgh, PA, shmitg@bellsouth.net(Dec 2004)

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