Słownik Geograficzny Towns and Villages (H)

    A manor farm in the Suwalki district, township Pawlow, Przerosl parish. It lies about 22 km to the NW of Suwalki between a lake of the same name and some nearby hills, in a picturesque setting, but the soil is rocky and infertile. In 1827 there were 8 houses, 120 residents. Currently there are 20 houses, 165 residents.
    The Hancza holding belonged to Bogumil prince Mirski. It was later sold at auction and purchased by Wincenty Jankowski in 1844. Due to the power/strength of the purchase and sale contracts, it was transferred to Adam Karegi and remained in his family until 1876. Division of the holdings followed, and the manor farm of the name Hancza is currently the property of three Israelites.
    The manor farm Old Hancza consists of 1000 acres open area, 380 acres plowed land and orchards, 160 acres meadow, 60 acres pasture, 380 acres woods, 80 acres unused. It has 5 brick buildings, 13 wooden buildings, ???? – 5 halves. Associated villages: village Dzierwany with 10 households and about 280 acres; village Mierkinie, 10 households, 260 acres; village Dziadowek, 8 households, 260 acres; village Zelazkowizna, 2 households, 70 acres; village Antosin, 7 households, 240 acres; village Stolupianki, 9 households, 290 acres; Jaczno settlement, 2 households, 7 acres; village Pogorzelek, 2 households, 60 acres; village Kramnik, 9 households, 390 acres; village Klajpeda Wielka, 8 households, 230 acres; village Nowe Mierkinie, 6 households, 11 acres; village Rogozajny, 4 households, 40 acres; village Lugiele, 16 households, 40 acres.
    Hancza national forests in Sejno district encompass 33,000 acres in area and are divided into three guard/watch regions: Kalety, Lipiny and Podlipki.
    Translated by Peter Wessner, PSG Texas Polish Footprints, Spring 2001 Periodical

    A manorial farmstead and settlement is in the parish and rural district of Kopciowo, Sejny County. It is 22 versts from the town of Sejny and has 2 houses and 18 residents.
    Translated by Dorothy Leivers, Hadlow, Kent, England

    Howiłów, also known as Howyłów and Howiłówek, are two villages in the county of Husiatyń. They are located about four kilometers from Chorostków. At one time, an Orthodox church existed in Howiłów.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

Husiatyń #1
    Also called Usiatyn, it is a town divided into two parts by the Zbrucz River. One section was part of the province of Podolia, county of Kamieniec, while the other part was located in Galicia. The section in the county of Kamieniec, district of Olchowiec, had a police force, a post office, a telegraph station, and a customs house. In the year 1876, commodities shipped by freight through Husiatyń into the Austrian Empire were valued at 910,402 silver rubles in monetary value. Goods valued at 515,334 in silver rubles were sent to other destinations. The Catholic Church was in Kutkowice. The town was rather wretched, very badly built, with a population of about 1,000 people. There was a country school, 24 craftsmen, four stores, 240 houses and one pharmacy. The local farms covered 523 dz. (dzieśięciny). The property owned by the noble Żeliski family from Józefówka, covered 937 dz. The estates owned by the Moderowski nobles, which later became the property of Anna Chlebowska, covered 165 dz. In the late 1800s, the Greek Catholic church of Sts. Cosmos and Damien had 1282 parishioners from the district area, and owned 28 dz. of land.
    In its early history, Husiatyń belonged to the Royal Family of Poland. It was the property of Queen Bona Sforza, (1494-1557), an Italian Princess who was the wife of King Zygmunt I, Stary (Sigismund I, the Elder 1467-1548). Queen Bona wished to “round out” her properties, and entered into an agreement with Jan Świercz of Olchowiec, who owned the village of Manikowce, and they “exchanged” towns. She was given Manikowce, and Świercz received Husiatyń. In 1559, city rights were granted to “Wsiathin”, as it was then called, and orders issued that it was to be governed according to Magdeburg law, (a governing system used in Germany). The king also granted rights to hold markets and fairs on New Year’s Day, Green Sunday (the 10th day after the Ascension of the Lord) and on St. Matthew’s Feast Day.
    Under the ownership by Jan Świercz, the town grew and prospered, which created much envy by neighboring villages, and an attempt was made to declare the agreement between Queen Bona and Świercz as invalid, and dishonor Jan Świercz. In 1567, as found in the National Archives, Acts of Revisions #18, page 71, the king confirmed that the exchange of towns between the Queen and Świercz, was indeed valid and would stand. Also stated was that the town of Kutkowce was included in the deal. In later years, after the Świercz family, the property became the holdings of the Kalinowski Family. In 1594, a Cossack chieftain, Semen Nalewajko, who was born in Husiatyń, blamed the Kalinowskis for the death of his father, and in revenge he attacked Husiatyń, burned and pillaged the village, and plundered the castle.
    After the male line of the Struś noble family of Stanisławie became extinct, the Kalinowski family became their successors. These were: Walenty, Alexander, who was married to Elizabeth Struś, and Adam, whose wife was Katherine Struś. The family gathered in Husiatyń on October 20, 1623 for talks and how to divide the properties. Adam was given the village of Tulczyn (Nestewar), Gregory took Human, and Martin claimed Husiatyń. Adam and Gregory passed away in 1639 and 1633 without heirs, and the entire fortune of the Struś and Kalinowski families reverted to Martin, a military commander. His holdings were spread out in four provinces: Russia, Podolia, Wołynia, and Bracław. Among the numerous towns he owned were 25 villages, and such towns as Janów, Pietniczany, Zwaniec and Husiatyń. On June 2, 1652, Martin Kalinowski and his son Samuel perished in a battle near Batoh. Samuel’s son, also named Martin, whose mother was Ursula Ossolinski, became the sole heir. Samuel’s granddaughter, Helena, married Jakob Morsztyn, the governor of Sandomierz, and the Kalinowski estates were passed on to the Morsztyn family. Helena too, passed away without heirs, and in 1729, the entire wealth and fortune passed on to her cousin, Stanisław Potocki, the governor of Belz.
Potocki died six years later, and his estates passed on to his nephew, Franciszek Salezy (Francis de Sales) Potocki. The will was probated and recorded in Bracław. Thus, all the fortunes of the Struś and Kalinowski nobles ended up in the hands of the Potocki Family. Franciszek Potocki’s wife was Anna, an heiress of the Łaszczów fortune. Potocki now could almost have called himself the ruler of a small kingdom.
    Of all the Kalinowski family, Martin the military commander, left a big legacy in Husiatyń. About 1645, he built a church and a Bernardine convent on the right side of the river. He built a fortress wall around the town and reinforced the defense of the castle. Eventually, Husiatyń was invaded and the Turkish conquerors annexed it to their captured lands in Podolia. During the campaign of King Jan Sobieski, circa 1683, the Turks who besieged Vienna were defeated and dispersed. Jędrzej Potocki, the castellan of Kraków, was instrumental in freeing Husiatyń and other villages, and wresting them from the hands of the Turks. The Turks had inflicted much damage on the defensive walls and the castle. After Potocki, a large area of the Kamieniec county passed into the hands of the noble man Łabędzki. In the late 1800s, Husiatyń’s owners were the Zelski family. A smaller area became the property of Anna Chlebowska, including the villages-once owned by the Moderowski nobles. Husiatyń was remembered as being visited by King Władysław, and King Jan Kazimierz during the battles with the Turks and the Cossacks. They were also visited by the Tsar Peter I. Markets and fairs held here were very famous, and attracted many buyers from the Far East.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

Husiatyń #2
    With Kierniczkie, (also known as Usiatyn and Wsiatyn) it is a county seat town in Galicia on the border of Russia, on the right bank of the Zbrucz River. On the north it borders the town of Olchowczyk, on the west Czabarówka, on the south Suchodol, and on the east, Husiatyń #1, in the county of Kamieniec. The town is built as if on a small half island on its eastern elevation, and is surrounded on three sides by the Zbrucz River. The valley of the river is 223 meters above sea level. The western side of the town rises to three different levels of elevation, namely 275 meters, 300 meters and 311 meters. The town covers an area of 2517 morgen [2] of land, with 1320 of this being farms. In the latter 1800s, the population registered 5514 inhabitants (736 Roman Catholics, 698 Greek Catholics, and 3780 Jews). A large farmstead covered 954 mr. of farmland, 59 mr. of meadows and gardens, 106 mr. of pastureland and 302 mr. of forests. Another property covered 819 mr. of farms, 102 mr. of meadows and gardens, and 30 mr. of pastures.

The arable fields were given names e.g., Popławy, Szmoragowa, Dębniki in the Traszkowa Valley, Mogiłki on the road to Krzyzowa, and Rowiska near the Grabnik Forest. Two large meadows were Popławy and Stawisko; two pastures were called Suchodol, on the border with Russia, and Ostrowiec on a portion of the island. The Grabnik Forest covered the southwestern end of the town. Husiatyń #2 was a county seat. There was a post office with a branch in Kopeczynce, 25 kilometers away, and another in Husiatyń #1, two kilometers away. There was a tax office, a county court house, a military police post, a notary public, a telegraph station, a customs house, and a town committee for governing local affairs. There was a two-classroom school, a doctor, three surgeons, and a pharmacy. The Roman Catholic Church belonged to the deanery of Czortków; the Greek Catholic church belonged to the deanery of Husiatyń, and both churches were part of the diocese of Lwów, (now Lviv in Ukraine). The villages of Czabarówka, Olchowczyk and Wasylkowce belonged to the parish church in Husiatyń.
The year the parish was founded is not known, but Church records reveal that it may have been in existence before 1610. The church being used in the latter part of the 1800s, was funded by the Kalinowski nobility, and belonged to the Bernardine Fathers until 1784, when the order was suppressed along with their convent. The Greek Catholic Church maintained an affiliate chapel in Olchowczyk. Like the Greek Catholic Church, a brick-built synagogue was located in Husiatyń. Its features were Gothic Style windows, and a flat invisible roof.
    The town had a capital worth of 2,300 złoty [zł], but in 1881 the income dropped to 96 zł. The local lending bank organized in 1869 had a capital of 2,452 zł. A hospital was built in 1855, which accommodated 16 patients. In 1881 its income totaled 30 zł. Count Baworowski, who owned the town of Kopeczyniec, started a foundation to aid three invalids. Its capital was 500 zł. and it netted an income of 30 zł. in 1881. Besides farming, some of the other industries and occupations were: shoemaking, weaving rough cloth for the farmers’ attire, the manufacturing of furs, farm implements, distilling liquor and brewing of beer. There was once a rope-making industry, which closed in 1870. The local fairs and markets were famous, with buyers and sellers coming from the Far East. Up to 1872, Husiatyń was an important stop in the trade business on the route from Podolia and Galicia, to and from Russia. When a new railroad line between Tarnopol and Podwołoczyska was completed, the trade business in Husiatyń fell off, until the building of the transversal line which linked Husiatyń with Stanisławów in 1882. To the south and the north of the Zbrucz River were found quarantine stations for cattle, built in 1862. These consisted of eight sheds, and a building for cleaning and processing furs and skins. The cattle industry ceased in 1882, due to the closing of the border. Also on the river were two watchtowers and border guard stations.
    The road from Husiatyń leads to Kopeczyniec on the west, and a county road on the southwest leads to Krzywenkie. In earlier times Husiatyń once belonged to the county of Czerwony Gród in the province of Podolia. Up to the year 1559, the town belonged to the Royal Family of Poland, as explained in the description of Husiatyń #1. In 1819, the town passed from the Potocki family to Count Zabielski, and in 1890 was the property of Count Gołuchowski. King August granted the rights to hold two fairs and markets, as outlined on documents issued on land rights, a book, on page 144.
The son of a furrier, Semen Nalewajko, a Cossack chieftain, was born in Husiatyń. Semen’s father was involved in a dispute with the Kalinowskis. In an altercation with the Kalinowski servants, he lost his life. In revenge, Semen, the son, plundered the castle and the town. This action is described in a work written by Szajnocha, Two Years of Our History, Volume 1, page 71.
The castle in Husiatyń was later destroyed by the Turks, and some traces of the fortress walls remained along the river. On the field called “Mogiłka”, were found mounds which contained beautiful bronze ornaments and objects. The official seal of the town depicted three steeples, with three geese on their summits [see back cover]. An illustration depicting the sights in Husiatyń was published in Vienna in 1872, as written by W. Chłopicki. In the story of Semen Nalewajko, it is noted that he perished in Warsaw in 1597.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

Husiatyń County A Condensed Version
    The county of Husiatyń, whose seat was the town of Husiatyń, bordered Russia. On the north, it bordered the county of Skałat, on the northwest Trembowla and Czortków. The elevations in the county measured from a low of 224 to a high of 356 meters above sea level. The highest hills in the county reached a height of 423 meters. There were over 65 towns and villages in the county, with 41 public schools, and three private schools. The towns, villages and settlements that made up the county of Husiatyń were Bednarów, Bereżnik, Bosyry, Celejów, Chłopówka, Chorostków, Czabarówka, Czarnokońce Małe and Wielki, Czarnokoniecka Wola, Czortków, Dubkowce, Hadyńkowce, Horodnica, Howiłów Mały and Wielki, Husiatyń, Hryńkowce, Iwanówka, Jabłonow, Karaszyńce, Kluwińce, Kobylowłoki, Kociubińce, Kociubińczyki, Kopaczynca, Kotówka, Krogulec, Krzyweńkie, Laskowej, Liczkowce, Majdan, Mszańiec, Myszkowce, Niżborg Nowy and Stary, Nowostawce, Olchowczyk, Oparszczyzna, Oryszkowce, Peremiłów, Postołówka, Probużna, Raków, Rakówkąt, Samołuskowce, Sidorów, Siekierzyńce, Słobódka, Stanisławów, Suchodół, Suchostaw, Szydłowce, Tłusteńkie, Trojanówka, Trybuchowce, Tudorów, Uwisła, Waligóry, Wasylków, Wasylkowce, Wierzchowce, Żabińce, Zawalikąt and Zielona.
    The rivers and streams that flow through the county are Bosyrski, Dniestru, Dworzyska, Głodne, Gniła, Kreciłów, Nakrasów, Niczława, Rudka, Seretu, Tajna, Tarcze, Strzałka, Słobódkę, Żabi and Zbrucza.
    Among the agricultural products raised were: wheat, rye, oats, corn, buckwheat, rapeseed, beets, sugar beets, potatoes, cabbage and hay. There were three doctors, seven surgeons, three pharmacies, 12 lending banks, two poor houses, and two courthouses. The Greek Catholic deanery numbered 29 parishes, and belonged to the archdiocese of Lwów (now Lviv). According to a census in 1880, the population numbered 77,791, of whom 39,386 were women, and 38,405 were men. In 1869, the population totaled 66,320 inhabitants. There were 19,293 Roman Catholics, 46, 182 Greek Catholics, 25 Augsburg Evangelicals, one Anglican, and 12,286 Jews. Polish was spoken by 17,060 residents, while 53,157 spoke Russian, 7,006 spoke German, and eight spoke other languages. As for education, 6,332 people were able to read and write, 1,327 were only capable of reading, and 70,132 were illiterate. There were 82 blind people, 65 people were deaf, 11 were insane, and 16 were mentally impaired. According to the schematics in 1881, the deanery of the Greek Catholic church listed a membership of 37,278 souls.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA