Słownik Geograficzny Towns and Villages (K)

Kacwin – in the County of Slovan, Hungary
    The village is near Spisz in the district of Niedzica. In German it is Kacvin and in Hungarian it is Kaczvin. It is on the river Kacwin at the mouth of the Dunajec located in a wide valley that is enclosed on both sides by the North Magora (Spisz). Kacwin was also known as Kacwink, originally as Katzwinkel and Katzenwinkel. It already existed in the 13th century. It is only known that the owner Kokosz in the year 1320 sold the territory Frydman (near Niedzica), Kacwin, and Frankowa to his brother Jan and his son Michael for 100 grzywien. The Roman Catholic parish was established in 1278 but it was not known when the church was built. The church’s name is “All Saints” and the registers date from 1679.
    In 1880 the village had 940 people: 832 Roman Catholics, 1 Greek Catholic, 14 Jews, and 93 non-Uniate (Greek Orthodox). There are two chapels: Holy Trinity and Saint Ann. The post office is in Starawies. The church is at an elevation of 561 m. From the west are the hills Krzyzona (Krizowa Hora) with an elevation of 767 m, Kunia Hora is 780 m, Winterleit is 723 m, Sklad 825 m, and from the east Halzyna 734 m and the hill Czerbulski is 743 m.
    Submitted by: Stan Schmidt, 106 S. Hill Street, IL 60172 (Jun 1998)

    Kaczanówka, a village in the county of Skałat, lies 7 kilometers from Skałat. There were 1167 inhabitants, of whom 1064 resided in the village, and 103 lived on the grounds of the royal manor house. The village had a Roman Catholic Church, and a Greek Catholic one also.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

    Current administrative location: Kaczkowo, Gmina Gniewkowo, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland. Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Kaczkowo, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.
    1) Also called Kaczkowska wieś or Kaczkowerdorf (German name). A village located in powiat Inowrocław. Kaczkowo has 19 houses with 141 inhabitants (all are Evangelical Protestants). There are 9 inhabitants that are illiterate. The post office and railway station are located in Gniewkowo (German name: Argenau), which is about 4 kilometers away.
    Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009.

    A long village on the Strug, which flows from the right bank into the Wislok, and located on the Rzeszow-Dukla highway. The village, surrounded by coniferous forests, has two outlying hamlets, Newsie and Wola, and belongs to the Roman Catholic parish in Blazowa, 1 km. away. The population of 1,896 Roman Catholics works in agriculture, as well as weaving and home industry. According to a memorial submitted to the Galician administration in 1882 there were-140 weavers’ shops here. They use factory-made yarn from Silesia or handmade from Grodek, but have little of their own, because they maintain that the soil is exhausted and thus cultivating flax doesn’t pay. They sell good products, some locally, some in Krakow, Lwow, and even in Moldavia. Some of the finest work is even said to come back from Romania to Galicia as Romanian or Turkish goods. There is a one-class people’s school here. The major estate, owned by Wl. Skrzynski, has a total area of 283 morgs of farmland and 1,365 of woods; the minor estate has 1,470 morgs of farmland, 192 of meadows and gardens, 166 of pastureland, and 230 of woods. See also Izwor and Kamienny potok.
    Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Winter 2000 Bulletin.

    Current administrative location: Kalinowiec, Gmina Bądkowo, Powiat Aleksandrów, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland. Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Kalinowiec, Powiat Nieszawa, Gubernia Warszawske, Vistula Land, Russian Empire.

1) A village and manor farm (folwark) located in powiat Nieszawa and gmina Bądkowo. Kalinowiec belongs to the Bądkowo Parish.
    The Kalinowiec folwark has a land area of 450 morgs: 420 morgs of arable farm and garden land, 7 morgs of meadows, and 23 morgs of barren parceled land. There are 12 brick buildings, 5 wooden buildings, and 14 1/2 field crop rotations. The village of Kalinowiec has 15 settlements on 17 morgs of cultivated land.
    Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009.

    1) a village in Pilzno county. In 1345 King Kazimierz granted Mikol~aj Kerstan a forest on the river Kamienica for settling a village by that name under terms of a Magdeburg charter. After 16 years of freedom from rent the settlers were to pay a ferton* of rent apiece. The soltys [district official] receives 2 lans with an inn and a mill. There is one lan for the church and one for pasture-land. The total is 60 Franconian-measure lans. In 1353 the King bestowed this village on one of his most deserving knights (“Kodeks malopolski,” III, 60, 88). In 1536, the property of the Tyniec monastery, it had 14 peasants, 1 croft, a wojt property [property given a wo jt or village headman for him to use to raise food, rent out, etc.], an inn (2 grzywnas of rent) and a mill.
    Translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the November 1997 issue of “Polish Footprints,” the publication of the Polish Genealogical Society of Texas, and appears here with express permission of the PGS-TX. (Nov 1997)

    Current administrative location: Kamieniec, Gmina Koneck, Powiat Aleksandrów, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland. Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Kamieniec, Powiat Nieszawa, Gubernia Warszawske, Vistula Land, Russian Empire.
    2) A village located in powiat Nieszawa and gmina Bądkowo. Kamieniec belongs to the Łowiczek Parish.
    Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009.

    Kanna, a village, lies on the right bank of the Wisła River, in an area which housed a customs office. It is part of the county of Dąbrowa Tarnowska, southwest of the village of Bolesław, where the parish church and postal district are located. It lies in a level ground of the Wisła river bed, 176 meters above sea level. In the late 1800s, the population numbered 464 people of whom 61 resided on a large estate holding. The inhabitants, Roman Catholics, had a chapel which was built by the populace, and in which devotions were held. On the north and the west, Kanna is surrounded by the Wisła river, on the east it borders Bolesław, and on the south Samocice. A large farmstead owned by Count Arthur Potocki covered 207 morgen of farmland, 33 morgen of meadows and gardens, 12 morgen of pastureland, and 91 morgen of forests. The village covered 272 morgen of farms, 23 morgen of meadows and gardens, and 168 morgen of pastures. The writer Długosz in his work, Liber Beneficiorum Volume II page 433, writes that Kanna was once the property of Jan Lipnicki and his heirs.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen C. Bienick of the PGS-CA

    Current administrative location: Karczyn, Gmina Inowrocław, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland. Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Karczyn, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.
    1) A village located in powiat Inowrocław. There are 10 houses with 105 inhabitants (all Catholics). There are 42 inhabitants that are illiterate. The post office, telegraph office, and railway station are located about 11 kilometers away in Inowrocław.
    2) A dominium located in powiat Inowrocław. The Karczyn dominium has an area of land equal to 3516 morgs. The Karczyn dominium has 10 houses with 182 inhabitants (167 Catholics and 15 Evangelical Protestants). There are 127 inhabitants that are illiterate. Karczyn is owned by Józef Kościelski. The entry did not list the village’s parish. The Góra Parish is located about 3-4 kilometers away.
    Translated by Al Wierzba, December 2009.

    A settlement in Augustow county, Barglow gmina and parish. It lies 16 versts [17 km.] from Augustow, and has 1 house and 1 inhabitant. [No author named].
    Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Fall 2002 Rodziny.

    An estate with a mill on the stream Zbrzyca, in the county of Chojnice, in a sandy and forested area. In size it consists of 3876 morgs. There are 17 buildings and 9 families. 115 Catholics, 2 Lutherans. The parish and school is in Lesno, the post office is in Brusy. Earlier it belonged to the Tuchola starosta-ship. In the lustration of 1664 we read that Kaszuba Mlyn (Mill) paid a rent of 92 zlote. The miller was obligated to guard the virgin forest and wild bees nests therein as he marks order, according to the railroad. In 1860 the owner was Jan Glowczewski.
    Translated by Gerald R. Schmidt, Pittsburgh, PA

    Current administrative location: Kawęczyn, Gmina Gniewkowo, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland. Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Kawentschin, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.
    1) A dominium located in powiat Inowrocław. The Kawęczyn dominium, including Grabie, had an area of 2745 morgs of open land. Kawęczyn has 8 houses with 153 inhabitants (121 Catholics and 32 Evangelical Protestants). There are 67 inhabitants that are illiterate. The post office and telegraph office are located in Murzynno (German name: Morin), which is about 4 kilometers away . The railway station is located in Gniewkowo (German name: Argenau), which is about 9 kilometers away. The Slownik entry for Kawęczyn did not list a parish, but according to the Family History Library Catalog entry for the Kawęczyn (Kawentschin) it belonged to the Grabie Parish.
    Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009.

Kawęczyn and Dąbrówka Wisłocka
    Both these combined villages are located in the county of Mielec, and nestle between the Wisła (Vistula) and Wisłoka rivers. The inhabitants are parishioners of the church in Czermin, which borders them on the south. The terrain is flat and level, and covered by forests of pine trees. Dąbrówka lies slightly to the east of Kawęczyn. Combined, these villages totaled 1318 people, of whom 515 lived in Kawęczyn, and 803 in Dąbrówka. The major farmstead in Kawęczytn had 89 inhabitants, the farmstead in Dąbrówka consisted of 42. There was a public school with two classrooms. The lord of the manor, A. Melszynski owned 449 morgen of land, which was farmed, and 77 morgen of meadows. The lesser holdings consisted of 355 morgen of farmland, 72 morgen of meadows and gardens, and 115 morgen of pasture lands.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

    In German, Exin. In old documents it is also known as “Krcenia”, a city in the powiat of Szubin. The village of Kcynia is located in a hilly region, on one of the highest points in the Grand Duchy of Poznan. Because the surrounding ground is lower the city is often exposed to the winds, the soil in the area is a thick clay like substance, under which is found a layer of gravel. In the area beneath Kcynia there is neither flowing or standing water and there are few water wells ; therefore in the summer a shortage of water often occurs.
    There are four communities in addition to Kcynia Miasto (The City of Kcynia): Kcynia-settlement and three granges: Karmelin, Stahlberg and Wydartowo.
    In the year 1871 there were about 254 houses, 2618 inhabitants, 605 Protestant, 1528 Catholics and 8 of other Christian beliefs and 477 Jews. In the year 1875 there were only 2591 inhabitants. In Kcynia, there were the headquarters of the district and also a Customs Office. The Catholic Parish Church was in the deanery of Kcynia.
    The Protestant Church was in the Dioceses of Szubin. A synagogue also existed in Kcynia. There was a Catholic Seminary for the future teachers with a preparatory institute and an elementary school “kilkoklasowa” (Editors Note 1). There were 645 illiterates.
    Trade and commerce at Kcynia has been lively over the ages, it is in present times more modest in dimension, dealing in horses, cattle and cereal grains. An important occupation in the area is the manufacture of pottery because of the availability of good clay in the region. For this same reason there are brick works in the town and in the region that produce brick and clay drain pipes.
    Located here is a Post Office of the second class and a telegraph; a postal service center for the area “poczthalterya”, (Editors Note 2) personal mail from Nak?o passed through Kcynia for Wagrowiec, and from Kcynia for Gniezno; as did written mail for Gromadno and for Retkowo; There is a Railroad Station in Nak?o (Nakel), 18 km distant.
    In the year 1811 Kcynia had 243 houses and 1411 inhabitants; in the year 1831 about 214 houses and 1834 inhabiants; in the year 1837 about 2074 inhabitants. From April 1842, there were four two day fairs: with stalls for horses and cattle.
    Apart from the Parish Church, consecrated to St Egidius and funded by Wladyslawa Herman (1079-1102), there is still in existance a second church with an old Monastery of the Carmelite monks and a chapel containing a miraclous painting that attracts many pilgrims.
    In the year 1262 Boleslaw, Duke of Wielkopolska granted a charter to Kcynia under the Madgeburg laws: the city administered an area from Poznan to Gniezno. In Kcynia during the 13th century Dukes Boleslaw and Przemyslaw of Wielkopolska negotiated with their uncle Swietopelk Duke of Pomerania a treaty to be able to regain the castle at Nak?o and control of the area to Poles.
    In times past Kcynia was the capital of the powait (district) under the jurisdiction of the general of Wielkopolska. It was also a place of annual Calissian nobility meetings. Resided also at Kcynia a “starosta niegrodowy” Editors note 3″ a kind of district leader.
    In the year 1441 a great fire destroyed the whole city; Almost all of the houses were rebuilt of stone, but by the 18th Century the area was in a state of decline.
    Raczynski in his Memories of Wielkopolska (11 p392) mentions the city in the 16th century and its considerable commerce. When in the year 1594 Sigismund (Zygmunt III) Vasa returned from Sweden he passed through the area, in Kcynia trade and craftsmen asked him to guarantee their profits from business, endangered by Scottish craftsmen who settled in the area.
    In the year 1772 the city came under Prussian dominance. Kcynia, as a district of the Calissian voivodship, was a center of political, administrative and judicial authority for the area, according to the lists from the year 1661 the city encompasses: Kcynia, Miesciska and the villages of Demblowo, Borzatew and Wiela.

    Kielno, formerly known as Kolno and Kölln [in German], was a rustic parish village. It is located on a lake in the county of Wejherowo, on the high road which runs between the town of Wejherowo and Leżno to the south. Included in the village were the following small settlements: Brzozówko, Dębnica, Jügerhof, Lis, Nowa Rola, Place, and Cegielnia kielińska. It covered 141 włoki of land. (one włok was equal to 30 morgen of land). There were 17 “gebur” (German farmers) who owned their own farms. Other inhabitants numbered 419 Catholics, 81 Evangelicals; there were 41 houses, as of the late 1800s. A parish church, a post office, and a water mill were located in the town. Kielno itself is located 3 1/4 Polish miles from Wejherowo city. Twice during the year, Kielno held fairs with the sale and trade of cattle and other goods. Kielno village and its church date back to early times and the first mention of its existence dates to 1342. Due to the Reformation movement, the church was twice confiscated by other religions. It was restored to the Catholics in 1570 by Bishop Stanislaus Karnkowski. The second recovery occurred in 1596 by Bishop Rozrażewski.
    Kielno, with its large folwark (a large farmstead) was once the property of the Polish kings, who owned the following nearby villages of Szynwałd, Przodkowo, Czapły, Nynkowy, Bojany, Jeleń, and Kosowo. The kings leased these properties to their friends and favorites. Among these were Jan Wejher, the sheriff in 1590, and Ernest Wejher in 1570. In 1654, the Polish rulers borrowed 83,900 florins from a certain Jan Werd, and these properties were given to the sons of Jan, free from all taxation until repayment of the debt. In 1686 the leaseholder was a certain nobleman named Linda. In 1702 the leaseholder was Jakub Łębiński, a judge. In 1751, a Łębiński funded the rebuilding and restoring of the parish church.
    Among the distinguished priests who served the Kielno church was a Zygmunt Niwicki, a canon from Włocław, who was also a royal secretary, and was a noted writer. In 1687 in Gdańsk, and later in 1692, he published two religious works in Latin. The second work was reissued in 1714. He was a Jesuit and died in Kraków. According to the diocesan schematics of 1867, the church in Kielno numbered 5,898 souls. The church was named St. Adalbert to honor its benefactor, the heir of Kielno whose surname was Dix. It is not known when and in which year the church was originally funded and built, nor when it was consecrated. Up to the year 1866, there was an affiliated church in Szynwałd, and a second affiliate in Przodkowo. Besides the 21 small out¬posts, the following small settlements belonged to the Kielno parish: Kielno Małe and Wielkie, Bieszkowice, Bieszkowo, Bojany, Borowa góra, Bożanka, Brzozowa Góra, Brzozówka, Brzozowe błoto, Czernia, Dębnica, Dębowa góra, Dobrzewino, Dębowa karczma, Głodowo, Głodówko, Glina, Glinica, Wielka wieś, Grenzfliess(?), Zielenisz, Hamowana, Jägersburg(?), Kamień, Karczemki, Kaszary, Kielińska huta, Kłosów, Kłosówka, Koleczkowo, Koleczkowski młyn, Koponiewo, Kontorwers(?), Kowalewo, Łękno, Lisewko, Marchowo, Marchówko, Marcinki, Mniszewko, Miszewka dąbrowa, Mrówczy zamek, Nowa karczma, Niemotowo, Nowa rola, Okuniewo, Oliwska dąbrowa, Orzechowo, Piecewo, Place, Piekiełko, Psale, Psalmo, Rąb, Rębiska, Renówko, Rogalewo, Sarnia góra, Czarna góra, Warzno, Warzenko, Warzeńska huta, Wielka rola, Wiślin and Zagannik.
    There were three parish schools with 181 Catholic students in Kielno, 16 in Wyślinie, and over 200 pupils in Szynwałd. Over 200 children did not attend any schools.
    As to the many tombstones with their epitaphs, there is a complete description of them in a publication called Echo, which featured sepulchers and was published in Peplin in 1765, and found on page 24. The following 4 epitaphs are of special interest in the Kielno Church.
#1 The most noble Samuel de Kczewo Kczewski, a most virtuous and righteous man, who passed away in the year 1646. He was a very pious person, along with his esteemed wife, Susanna de Bakowiec Schlichtingia.
#2 The most noble Gasparus Uberfeld, born September 11, 1561 in Koleczkowo and who passed away on March 9 in 1617.
#3 The most honorable and just nobleman, Laurentius Jantzen, deceased January 2, 1632.
#4 His lordship the nobleman, Carolus Jantzen, died October 23, 1666. May he rest in peace.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

    Kłodzin, in German Kludzin, was a village located in the county of Wągrowiec, had 4 houses, 38 people of whom all were Catholics; 12 inhabitants were illiterate. The post office was in Łopienno, 6 kilometers away. The railroad station was in Gniezno, 21 kilometers distant.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

    In German Kludzinki or Kludzienko, was a village in the county of Wągrowiec. It belonged to the Dutch colony of Miłosławice. There were 7 houses with 55 occupants. The post office was in Łopienno, 5 kilometers away. The railroad station was in Gniezno, 25 kilometers distant.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

Komorsk Mały
    Known as Klein Komorsk in German, Komorsk Mały is located on the lower banks of the Wisła River. The village covered 1020 morgen of land, with 38 buildings and 28 houses. There were 32 Catholics and 146 Evangelicals. The parish church was in Komorsk Wielki, the school in Pastwisko, and the post office was in Warlubie. Komorsk Mały was once the property of the Dukes of Pomerania. In 1273, Duke Mestwin II gifted the village to the Bishops of Kujawa, and granted the same rights as given to Komorsk Wielki. Both Komorsks were the possessions of the Bishops, until the partitions of Poland and the Prussian occupation. In 1772, the Prussian rulers confiscated these estates and the villages fell into private hands.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

Komorsk Wielki
    Komorsk Wielki (Large) and Komorsk Mały (Small) are in the county of Czersk Świecki. Komorsk Wielki, in German known as Gross Kommorsk, also listed in documents as Comorsco, Comorsk, was a church village situated on the fertile land, on the left bank of the Wisła (Vistula) River, While one section was located on the Wisła River, the second half of the village lies on a stream called Mątawa. A small lake near it is called Zawada. Komorsk was divided into two sections. One part was the property of the local farmers and covered a land mass of 3,763 morgen, 121 buildings, 80 houses, and numbered 488 Catholics and 145 Evangelicals. There was a parish school in this section. The post office and the railroad station were in Warlubie. The second section of Komorsk was a colonist town known as Kathedorf in German and Komorsk in Polish, and was also known as Krzyżówki. This section covered an area of 1793 morgen of land, 213 buildings, 179 houses, with 866 Catholics and 318 Evangelicals. The town dates back to early times. On the eastern side of the town, on a high elevation on the Wisła River, were found many archeological items in 1876, among them urns with ashes, burial items, and bones scattered in the sand. These discoveries are described by Gottfried Ossowski, in his works “The Archeological Map of Western Prussia”, page 39.
    In its beginnings, the village was the property of the Dukes of Pomerania. By the 13th century, it was in the hands of the Dukes of Subisław. The owner following the Subisław nobility was Duke Świętopełk. In 1246, Świętopełk gifted the town to the Bishops of Kujawa, the first of whom was Michał, as retribution for the damages inflicted on the church in a military action in the Kujawa region. This agreement with the Bishop was initiated by the sister of Świętopełk, who was the abbess in the Norbertine Sisters’ Convent in Źukowie. The damage was estimated as being over 100 marks. Duke Świętopełk also freed the natives of Komorsk from paying taxes and other financial burdens.
    In 1295, Bishop Wisław of Kujawa funded and consecrated a new church dedicated to St. Bartholomew the Apostle. He assessed the village farmers a small tax to maintain the buildings, and a one-coin tax on the water mill was to be used for the purchase of candles for the church. He also offered the church the tithe money he received from the villages of Lubien, Rolewo, Milewo, Bzowo and Bękowa. Circa 1412, in disputes with the Bishop of Kujawa, the Teutonic Knights plundered and occupied the church, but later relinquished their hold. In 1684, the church burned down, with the exception of the tower. A new church was erected in 1684 at a higher cost by Bishop Madalinski, and consecrated by him. Others who contributed to the construction were Grzemski, a priest from Nowe, Jacob Dorpowski and his wife Elizabeth, nee Garczynski from Rolewo. They supplied the building materials. Other benefactors were Stanisław Konarski, a castellan from Grupa; Alexander Czapski, a standard bearer from Malbork and Bękowa, and his wife Jadwiga nee Działynski; Jan Jaśinski from Plochocin, and his wife Marianna, nee Dąbrowski. All the above donors are mentioned in a document “Echo Sepulchris Inscriptum in Peplin”. A description of the church and parish and other data appear in the diocesan schematics of 1867. It records the following: “The church in Komorsk dedicated to St. Bartholomew, is under the patronage of the Bishop of Kujawa, who ordered its construction. The present church was erected in the years 1797-1798, and consecrated on July 15, 1798.
    In its vicinity stands a hospital presently housing six needy people. There were two Rosary Societies founded in 1817, and a Brotherhood from 1864. The parish numbered 2,780 souls and consisted of the villages of Komorsk Wielki, Komorsk Mały, Warlubie, Kurzejewo, Rolewo, Steinhof, Rozgarty, Biała Góra, Mlekarnia and Pastwisko. The parish school in Komorsk had two classrooms and numbered 205 students, while the second school in Warlubie numbered 198 pupils.
    In 1765 and 1780, an affiliate chapel was maintained in Rolewo for the Pawłowski family, and was located in their manor house. A court was in operation in Komorsk where the Bishop presided and settled legal and religious problems. The court served the interests of Pastwisko, Warlubie, Pieniążkowo, Jeżewo, Piaski and Kurzejewo. There were 154 fields of farms (Jeźewo), along with a water mill and five inns (taverns) in Pieniaszkowo, Komorsk, Piaski Warlubie and Jeźewo. Besides the ten large fields in Lower Komorsk, there were pastures near Mątawa stream, and a large farmstead (folwark) with two fields. Other folwarks were located in Warlubie and Jeźewo. A large expanse of meadowland extended along the lower banks of the Wisła River. In the late 1800s, 84 morgen of wooded land was cleared, and 205 morgen of land was sold. In 1757, Ziołkiewski, a royal steward from Nowogród, leased farm property in Komorsk at a yearly cost of 7,400 złoty. This is documented in a yearly publication in Torun “X kujot” which outlined the wealth of the Bishops in Pomerania, as written by Wegner, of Kreis Schwetz.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

    Konotopy, a village in the county of Sokal, lies west of the county court and post office in Sokal. On its northeast boundary sits the village of Cielęż; on the east and south borders Sokal; on the southwest it borders Opulsko; and on the northwest lies Chorobrów.
    On the east, flows the river Bug, from Sokal and the southeast in a circuitous route to the northwest. It then turns from the north to the east and enters the village of Cielęż. On its left bank, it is joined by several small streams, which flow from west to east. On the right bank of the Bug, lie very wet pasturelands; on the left bank are found rustic buildings and houses; and to the south of them is located a field called, Mogiłki (mounds), near an elevation in Konotopy – 198 meters in height. The valleys of the many streams are also very marshy.
    A large farmstead owned by Komorowski covered 353 morgen of farms and meadows, 135 morgen of farms, and 120 morgen of pastures. Another estate covered 926 morgen of farms, 120 gardens, and 77 morgen of pastureland. According to the 1880 census, there were 542 people in the district, of whom 128 lived on the noble estate. About 200 were Roman Catholics and the remainder were Greek Orthodox. The Catholic parish was in Sokal. The Greek Orthodox church was in the deanery of Waręż, in the diocese of Przemyśl. The village of Opilsko was also a part of the Greek Orthodox deanery. In the village of Konotopy was found a Russian Orthodox church and a school, not very well organized. Konotpoy also had a distillery. In 1440, Kazimierz (Casimir) IV, gifted the village of Konotopy to Andrzej (Andrew) from Opolska, a Russian Sheriff, and introduced the German method of civil government.
    On the field known as Mogiłki, (mounds), which lies on the southern section of Sokal, were found one large mound and several smaller ones, which were entirely ploughed under. In 1831, quite by accident, several iron sickles wre found buried in the soil. The local farmers broke them up into flints. This happening is documented in the works of Schneider in manuscripts located in the Ossolinski Museum in the city of L‘wow (L’viv), Ukraine.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

    In German known as Berent, was also listed in old documents as Costrina, Kustryn, Cosceryna, and Kościna. The town is the seat of the county bearing the same name, Kościerzyna. It is situated in what was once called West Prussia, in the Kaszuby district. It lies in an area noted for its numerous lakes, the closest one being Lake Wierzysko, which is the source of the river Wierzyca. Kościerzyna is located on the high road which runs between Bytów and Starogard, and the route between Gdańsk and Źukowo. Beyond the town, other roads branch out to Chojnice, Zblewo and Gdańsk. The town of Kościerzyna covered 6,677 morgen of land, with 548 buildings and 267 houses. In 1819 there were only 1140 people, but in 1865 the population totaled 4004, of whom 2268 were Roman Catholics, 1305 were Evangelicals, and 431 were Jews. The town had a land registry office, a courthouse (Amtsgerich), a rendamt, a county treasury, a lending bank (Kreis Sparkasse) a post office one kilometer distant, a telegraph office, a Catholic church, a pretty chapel dedicated to the Blessed Lady, a synagogue, a secondary school, a Catholic seminary for educating teachers, and a private Catholic school for girls, wonderfully constructed and arranged. Other institutions were a Catholic city school with four classrooms and a Protestant school with five classrooms. Kościerzyna had a book binding shop, a printery, a water mill, a wind mill, three famous breweries and two dyehouses. There were 55 merchants, 16 eating establishments, 5 coach drivers, 7 traveling salesmen (Hausirer), 9 bakers, 7 butchers, 2 brewers, 2 millers, 1 painter, 1 roofer, 10 blacksmiths, 16 tailors, 27 shoemakers, 1 chimney sweep, 1 rope maker, 6 wheel-wrights, 10 cabinet makers, 5 pott¬ers, 1 watchmaker, 3 carpenters, 1 brick mason, 4 locksmiths, 5 saddle makers, 4 tanners, 3 glaziers, 2 tin workers, 7 furriers, 1 lathe worker, 1 barber and 5 cooperage makers.
    The income from taxes amounted to 6283 “talar” in 1865. (One talar was equivalent to 6 złoty). The town of Kościerska Huta (foundry) also belonged to Kościerzyna. Kościerzyna is one of the oldest settlements in Pomerania. It is in an area which was once a very expansive district called Pirsna, Pircha, and Pirsza.
    During the days of the Pomeranian Dukes, the following villages were part of this district: Zelenino, Bandomino, Neruse, Lubna, Gostome, Korne, Skorewo, Unerase, Saple, Pirscewo, Golubc, Patuly, Sicorino, Pehuce, Zgorale, Manczewo, Klobucino, and Sarewo.
    In 1255, during the times of occupation by the Teutonic Knights, the Grand Master, Poppo von Osterna, issued a decree granting privileges to the parish church. It is not known why he proclaimed this, as the archives in Peplin showed that these rights had already been given before the arrival of the Teutonic Knights into Poland. In 1284, the Pomeranian Duke, Mestwin II, deeded Kościerzyna and its district to his sister and his niece, Gertrude, with the stipulation that the town would be free from any rulings by provincial governors, castellans, and other governing officials. The people would only be required to pay taxes, and serve in the military in event of war.
    In 1312, the Countess Gertrude sold Kościerzyna and its surroundings to the Teutonic Knights, for the sum of 300 grzywna, [an ancient silver coin used in Poland and Europe worth several denarii]. The Knights moved their bailiff into the local castle, from which they governed the Kościerzyna area, According to the accounting records, Kościerzyna was then named Bern, and the town paid a rental tax of 720 “scotus”, [an ancient monetary unit]. Kościerska Huta, (the foundry) paid taxes on 54 “włóki”(a włóka equals 30 mórgs of land, see footnote 1 pg. 3). As was their custom, the Knights had a large folwark (farmstead) next to the castle. In the year 1466, Kościerzyna and the castle were re-annexed into Poland from the control of the Knights. Their governing body was replaced by Polish authorities. In 1580, the regional administrator, named Mikołaj [Nicholas] Kostka, a staunch Catholic, made provisions forbidding the local Roman Catholic Church to fall into the hands of religious reformers.
    Due to its remote location and poverty status, the townspeople did not actively participate in military during the wars and other events. What is known, however, is that the Swedish invasion (see “The Deluge” by Henry Sienkiewicz) circa 1657, did much damage to the town and the church of St. Jerzy was destroyed. The church was subsequently rebuilt, and dedicated to the Holy Cross and St. Barbara. A new brick church was also built in 1642 by the Carthusian Monks from Kartuzy. In later years, the town was once again threatened by a fire. With no help to battle the flames, the parishioners vowed that if the town and the churches were spared by the grace of God, then each year on the Feast of the Visitation of Mary, they would conduct a procession and a pilgrimage to her shrine in town of Trąbki. When their prayers were answered, and the fire was stopped, they kept their word and observed the event until the year 1825, after which the practice was abandoned.
    In 1750, after the Bishop’s visit to the town, it was noted that the population of Kościerzyna was totally Catholic, with not a single Jewish or Protestant inhabitant. At the start of the Prussian occupation, during the partitions of Poland, people of other religious persuasions began to arrive. Frederick the Great, established the first Lutheran church, and a Jewish synagogue was built. In 1861, the reverend canon, R. Prądzynski, at his own expense funded an institution for young ladies, which was staffed by the Ursuline Sisters from Poznań. It was taken over in 1863 by the Sisters of Mercy, who arrived from Chełm. The school numbered 100 students, who later con-tributed priceless services to the local citizens. About this time, the Catholic Seminary was founded to train teachers. On May 2, 1869, another disastrous fire destroyed the chapel of the Holy Cross, and a section of the town. A valued icon of the Lord was barely saved. In 1878, the Sisters of Mercy, departed the town due to the “kulturkampf” (the culture clash with the Prussian authorities).
    The girls institute was then turned into a school for secular teachers. For sometime in the 1800’s there was a movement afoot to have a rail¬road line built in Kościerzyna, which would connect to the towns of Skarszewa and Bytów, as the closest station was in Zblewa (Hoch-Stüblau), 5 kilometers from the town. Zblewa was also the location of the post office.
    Kościerzyna Powiat (County)
The county (powiat) of Kościerzyna, covered 315,095 morgen of land. In 1865 the population numbered 38,784. There were 21,327 Catholics and 16,783 Evangelicals, of whom 20,200 were Poles and 18,500 were Germans. There were 55 Catholic elementary schools. A children’s shelter housed 221 young boys and 227 girls. The deanery of Kościerzyna consisted of 14 parishes, Kościerzyna, Kartuzy, Chmielno, Goręcin, Gowidlino, Grabowo, Lipusz, Luzin, Parchowo, Sianowo, Sierakowice, Sulęcin, Strzepcz and Stężyca.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

    is a village situated on the river Meszną in the county of Słupca, in the deanery of Wirzbiec, district and parish of Młodojewo. It lies a distance of three kilometers from Słupca. In the late 1800s, there were 30 houses with 200 inhabitants. The Koszuty folwark (large farmstead) also known as Bielawy, had 11 houses with 61 people. The land owned privately by the local farmers and the parsonage numbered three houses and 19 residents. A local manor house consisted of four buildings with 121 inhabitants. On the parsonage property owned by the church, there was also one house with 12 people. Koszuty has an affiliate church from the 18th century built of wood. It was built in 1720 by Mikołaj Lukomski, an abbot, and dedicated to St. Bartholomew.
    In the year 1253, Koszuty became the property of the convent in Ląd. (The above is described in the Kodex of Poland, Volume 1 pages 151 and 163, also in the works Łaski, and the book Liber Beneficiorum by the writer Długosz, Volume 1 page 305, in which Koszuty was mentioned as being a part of the parish in Słupca.The civil registers from the year 1859 state that the following folwarks were a part of Koszuty’s holdings: Koszuty folwark, Kowalewo-Sołeckie, Wola and Grobla. The following villages belonged to the district: Koszuty, Kowalewo, Wierzbno, Wola, the mill in Grobla, and the colony of Róża. According to the statistics of 1844, the region covered 2453 morgen of land, consisting of fertile farms, meadows pastures and unused land, plus 2800 morgen of forests, in total 5253 morgen. In 1868, the folwark of Koszuty was the property of Major General Furnhelm.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

    , is a village and a folwark (large farmstead) located in the county of Gostynin, district and parish of Sanniki. It belonged to the noble owners of Sanniki. The folwark had one building and 52 inhabitants, and covered 465 morgen of land. Of this, 339 mr. were farms and gardens, 87 mr. were pastureland and 39 mr. were not in use. There were nine fertile farms with seven buildings. There was a sheepfold numbering 4,000 sheep of a good breed.
    The village of Krubin had 55 houses with 471 Catholic inhabitants. It covered 1,069 morgen of land consisting of 972 fertile farms, one of pastures and 97 of land not in use. In 1827 Krubin village had 47 houses with 377 inhabitants. Krubin is mentioned in the Diplomatic Kodex of Poland, page 153.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

    , a village in the county of Płonsk, lies on the river Naruszewka in the district of Naruszewo. It is 10 “verst” distant from the city of Płonsk. The town had a brick parish church, a savings bank and lending office, a windmill and a small inn. In the late 1800s there were 11 houses and 210 inhabitants. Farmland covered 886 morgen of land, 26 morgen not in use. The Krysk colony of non-Polish inhabitants had 6 houses with 63 people on 346 morgen of land. In 1827 the village numbered 18 houses and 287 inhabitants.
    A small wooden church was erected in 1481 by Jan de Krysko, a canon from Płock. In the 16th century it was destroyed by lightning. It was rebuilt of brick and named in honor of St. Florian. In the 19th century it was destroyed due to the lack of an overseer. The church was rebuilt in 1850 through the efforts of Franciszek Dziechoński, who became the pastor. The parish church in Krysk belonged to the deanery of Zakroczyn.
    The village of Krysk was once the property of the Krysk family. A member of this family, Małgorzata, was the mother of St. Stanislaus Kostka. In the 18th century the town was the property of Sołtyk, a castellan of Kraków, whose commemorative plate is set in the church wall. The owner of Krysk in the late 1800s was Kazimierz Karczewski. His folwark (a large farmstead) included Krysk and the village of Drohowo, which was 12 verst from the Wisła river and covered an area of 559 morgen of fertile land and gardens, 125 morgen of meadows, one morgen of pastureland, 20 morgen of forests, and 40 morgen of unused land.There were 18 brick buildings and 30 built of wood. Eight morgen were set aside for raising cattle and 10 morgen were used for hunting. There were 57 non-Polish colonists with 57 morgen of farms in Krysk. The village of Drohowo had 20 colonists with 224 morgen of farmland.
Note: One morgen = ~2.116 acres. A verst is a Russian measurement comparable to 0.663 mile. A folwark is a large farmstead and manor house, usually the property of a nobleman. A colony was a settlement of non-Polish people (in this area, probably Germans).
    Sanniki had a brick parish church, an elementary school, a shelter for the poor, and a hospital for the factory workers. Also located in the town were the local district court, the civil office, a post office, a sugar refinery, a distillery in 1875, a windmill, a brick-making kiln, and an inn with a restaurant. There was a liquor warehouse, six shops, three bakers, four butchers and 12 other craftsmen in the village. In the late 1800s, there were 89 houses (16 built of brick) and 1,912 inhabitants, of whom 1,807 were Catholics, 50 were Evangelicals, 10 were Baptists, and 44 were Jewish. Only 110 of these people could read and write.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

    Ksiąźnice, a village divided into two sections, one called “Małe” (Small) and the other “Wielkie” (Large), lies in the county of Bochnia, and is situated on both sides of the Raba river. In the late 1800s, it belonged to the Catholic Church and parish in the village of Chełm. The post office was in Gdów. Ksiąźnice Małe sits on the right bank of the Raba river; Ksiąźnice Wielkie on the left bank. There is a small stream called Gnoj, which flows through the center of Ksiąźnice Wielkie. Ksiąźnice W. and Ksiąźnice M. are connected by a beautiful iron bridge built on stone pillar supports. Due to the width of the river bed, the bridge is quite long.
    The Catholic population of Ksiąźnice numbered 624 souls. There were two large farmsteads, one of which covered 17 morgen of farmland, while the other consisted of 603 morgen of land. The soil on the river bank is somewhat slimy, but very fertile. Ksiąźnice borders the villages of Łęźkowice and Chełm on the north, Pierzchów and Nieszkowice to the south, Gierzyce on the east, and Cichawą on the west. N.B. Since 1925, Ksiąźnice belongs to the Sacred Heart Church and parish in Łęźkowice.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

    , a village in the county of Dąbrowa Tarnowska, belonged to the Roman Catholic Parish in Bolesław. Its postal district was in Szczucin. It is situated on the left bank of the Wisła river (Vistula). It is on the road which leads from Tarnów to Dąbrowa, near the border of what once was the Kingdom Congress which was established by the Russians. It has a level terrain, and it is 173 meters above sea level. In the late 1800s, there were 691 Roman Catholics, 11 of whom resided on the estate of Count Arthur Potocki. This estate covered 38 morgen [1] of farmland and 101 morgen of forests. The village area covered a total of 685 morgen of farmland in total. Kupienin is somewhat encircled by the Wisła river on the north and west. On the south, in a straight line of two kilometers lies Mędrzechów, and on the east about three kilometers distant, lies the village of Odmęt.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

    was a small settlement about a quarter of a Polish mile from the town of Warlubie, in the county of Czersk Świecki. It lies on the left bank of the Wisła (Vistula) River. In maps drawn by the cartographer Kętrzynski, it was spelled as Kurczejewo. The village has been known to be in existence for many years, and was once the property of the Bishops of Kujawa. Records dating back to 1760 confirm that the name was officially revised to Kurzejewo. In later years, its name was deleted from official county maps. In diocesan schematics of 1867, Kurzejewo was mentioned as belonging to the parish in Komorsk, at which time it totaled 94 inhabitants.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA