Słownik Geograficzny Towns and Villages (L)

    Labetnik, [Editor’s Note: now spelled Labednik], village and manorial farmstead, Augustow powiat, Barglow gmina, Rajgrod parish. 17 km. from Augustow, it has 26 houses, 255 inhabitants. In 1827 it was a government owned village and had 22 houses and 131 inhabitants.
    Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Winter 1998 Bulletin.

    Laczki, a village in Jaslo powiat, on the right bank of the Wislok,* 246 meters above sea level, occupies a silt covered river basin in a plain enclosed to the west and south by hills reaching a height of 370-377 m. absolute elevation. These hills are covered by forests. To the north and east stretch fertile plains. Laczki has a Roman Catholic parish, a 1-class people’s school, and a gmina loan society with capital of 342 zl. in Austrian currency, and is attached to the powiat court and post office in Frysztak, 9 km. away. Of the 426 inhabitants, 33 live permanently on the major estate, 308 are of the Roman Catholic faith, 100 are Greek Catholic, and 18 are Jews. The major estate, owned jointly by several people, has an area of 180 morgs of farmland, 17 of meadows and gardens, 17 of pastures, and 11 of forests; the minor estate has 284 morgs of farmland, 25 of meadows, 100 of pastures, and 11 of forests. Laczki used to belong to the diocese of Krakow, but the parish church was in Leki [on modern maps this appears to be the village named Leki Strzyzowskie], and until the partitioning of Galicia the church in Laczki was a branch of that one. But since the branch church was the more spacious and better maintained one, the Austrian government made it the parish church, and the one in Leki the branch. It is made of brick, built in 1750 and consecrated in 1756. The parish belongs to the Diocese of Tarnow, deanery of Frysztak, and includes Leki and its attached branch church, as well as Przybowka, Widacz, Wojszowka [Wojaszowka], Wojkowa [Wojkowka], Wysoka, Rzepnik and Pietrusza Wola, with a total population of 2,569 Roman Catholics and 48 Jews. Laczki borders to the west and south on Wojsznwka, to the east on Rzepnik, and to the north on Leki.
    Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Winter 1999 Bulletin.

    Ląd, sometimes mistakenly spelled as Lęd, lies on the river Warta in the county of Słupca, district of Ciążeń, parish in Ladek, about 10 kilometers from Słupca. In the late 1800s, there were 24 houses with 250 inhabitants, the folwark had five houses with 55 inhabitants, and three houses and two inhabitants near the convent area. The village has an ancient convent with rich antiques, the remains of the church and abbey of the order of Cistercian monks.
    Mieczysław Stary, a Duke reigning in Wielkopolska (Greater Poland), brought in the German Cistercians, and they settled in the area of the church. Eventually, they became very rich, and would not admit Poles into their order. In 1551 there were 27 members, all Germans, who often left the convent and traveled to Germany. In 1539, King Zygmunt I mandated that Poles be permitted to join the convent, as a result of the Reformation sweeping through Europe.
    The German monks then departed to Germany. The convent then had two abbots, one in command, and the second a bishop dignitary. The last abbot of the convent was named Woronicz. The Polish abbots undertook to restore the convent and in 1690, it was rebuilt by Zapolski to its present condition in the late 1800s. The work was later finished by Mikołaj Łukowski, who spent his own money and 50 years in beautifying the church and convent. He built the two steeples and covered the roof in tin plate, which is still in existence. His Coat of Arms was placed in the steeples.
    After the Cistercians departed the area, the vacant premises were slated to be destroyed. The convent was rescued by the families Gutakowski and a nobleman, Benjamin Szymanski, who invited the Franciscan Capuchin Fathers to occupy it. He permitted the monks to engage in collecting donations and offerings to restore the buildings. From 1850 to 1852, the convent and church were totally repaired. The Capuchin fathers then left the area in 1864. Many expensive religious articles were removed and installed in other churches in Poland.
Mieczysław Stary gave the Cistercians the following villages: Kościół, Dolany, Mozscho, Kłobia, Chocen, Szetlewo, Rzgów, Grabienice, Sławsk, Wronów, Kwiatków, Chorzeń, Starałąka, Swiniarowo, Głowiew, Tur and Sobótka. These actions are mentioned in many documents and codexes, particularly in the Liber Beneficiorum, volume 1, pages 101, 282, 313 and 320. An article and history of the convent were featured in the “Dziennik Warszawski” newspaper in 1851 pages 54 through 133. In 1858 a historical account of the abbey and church in Ląd was featured in the “Dziennik Warszawski”. In later years the existence of the first abbey was described in a historical work by the known writer, Władysław Luszczkiewicz.
    The estates of Ląd consisted of the following large farmsteads: Policzko, Jaroszyn, Zdary, Dziedzice and Ląd, covering approximately 2988 morgen of land. The folwark in Ląd covered 748 morgen of farms and gardens, 344 morgen of meadows, 169 morgen of pastures, 145 morgen of forests, 122 morgen of unused areas and water, in total 1528 morgen The estate covered 17 brick buildings and one built of wood. There were two wind and water mills on the Warta river. The estates mentioned above were annexed to the properties of the owners of Ciążeń.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

    Lądek, a village that lies on the river Warta, about one kilometer from its corridor, is in the county of Słupca, district of Ciążeń, with the parish in Lądek. It is about 20 kilometers from Słupca on the road which runs from Konin to Pyzdry. It is 26 kilometers distant from Konin and 217 kilometers from Warsaw.
    In the village there is a brick church, a shelter for 12 elderly and crippled people, and an elementary school. In 1827, there were 71 houses with 620 inhabitants; in 1860 there were 76 houses (24 made of brick) and 727 inhabitants, of whom 19 were Jews. In the late 1800s there were 82 houses and 814 inhabitants.
    Lądek was founded in 1230 by the Cistercian Monks, who lived in the town of Ląd. The city was governed in the manner of the German rules, and in German was called Landeck, after privileges were granted to it by Kazimierz, the Duke of Kujwa. The abbots were very instrumental in getting preferential treatment from the Polish kings, as is evidenced in the archives of Warsaw, and discovered in 1851.After the Abbey was suppressed in 1798, the Prussians confiscated its possessions and sold them to private owners. The parish church was funded by Mieczysław Stary, and rebuilt from bricks in 1777 by Konstanty Słowicki, the abbott. The parish in Lądek belongs to the deanery of Słupca, which numbers 3065 souls, as recorded in the book Liber Beneficiorum volume 1, pages 280 to 293.
    Note: Liber Beneficiorum is a volume of books by Długosz covering the history of churches and religious institutions in Poland.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

    Lapinózek – Manor and village in the district of Rypin and township and parish of Osiek; 14 m. in distance from Rypin. The village has 12 dwellings, 162 inhabitants; 501 acres of cultivated land and 19 acres unprofitable. The nearby villages of Lamkowizna, Bogaczew, Chorablem, Brzostów and Lawami contain 41 settlements; 50 dwellings; 319 inhabitants and 195 acres. The manor rights belong to Radziki Male.
    Submitted by Steven Skoropowski – Translated by Deborah Irwin

Łapsze Wyżne
    The village of Łapsze Wyżne (Upper)) belongs to the district of Łapsze Niżne (Lower). It is long and narrow, 1.75 kilometers in length, located on an elevation of 635 to 670 meters above sea level in a deep valley of the stream called Łapszanka. It is situated on the road which runs between the towns of Trybsz and Niedzica. On its north rises a mountain ridge called Grandeus, 795 meters in height. To the south stands a mountain peak called Kurosówka. The old houses in existence are mostly built of brick, or wood on brick foundations, and face the street with small walls in front of them. The area covers 1685 ha of land, of which 35% are forests, and 16% are pastureland. The population numbers about 800 people.
    The village of Łapsze traces its origin to 1340. In the 15th century, it was divided into two, namely Niźna (Lower) and Wyźna (Upper). The original inhabitants were referred to as “Dolinki” meaning “valley people”, which eventually evolved into the Hungarian word “Łapos”, which means a kneading trough, a valley, named “Dolinski”. Hence, the name Łapszanki comes from the Hungarian.The village maintained the prevailing customs of the era, and it was governed based on the German style and manner, which was typical of Upper Hungary. Along with its present architecture and its buildings, it has nothing in common with the former style. The new styles came into existence after 1945, when the village was rebuilt after its destruction in World War II. “Czworaki”, which were houses that contained four families disappeared, as well as the gates and shady porches and balconies made popular by the carpenter named Knaus, the “Horwatek”. (Note: the palace of the noble family named Horwath is still in existence).
    The village continued its expansion and growth due to the building of a road leading to the present-day Slovakian border with Poland, and the villages of Stare Cło and Cisłowa Skała (ridge), where the Białka River splits into two, presently Gronków.
    For many years carriage and wagon driving was the principal occupation of the people. Due to the poor soil, poverty was prevalent. The village was also known for the production of shoes and boots.
    The villages of Kaćwin, Łapsze and Trybsz have much in common with their characteristics in such cases as architecture, soil condition, and dress fashion, akin to the Germans in Keżmark, as well as the manner of civil governing. Many names used by the German colonists were used in describing the dress, topography, even the utensils used in daily routine.
    Many of the inhabitants were from Poland proper, who were assigned to work as serfs in the olden days. The German colonists were not looked upon favorably, since they were better organized. Although they were obligated to pay rentals for their land, they often petitioned the town bailiff for better living conditions and tax relief from the Hungarian nobility, and requested that they match the terms of living as experienced by the peasants from Poland proper.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

    Is a village in the administrative district of the Nowy Targ (powiat). It is east from Nowy Targ and below the Gorce hill flows the stream Lepietnica. Lasek borders on the north with Klikuszowa and Pyzowka, on the west with Morawczyna and Krauszow, on the south with Ludzmierz, and on the east with Nowy Targ and Niwa. On the west is the river Syraczka.
    North of the village is the hill Przyslop, 708 meters above sea level. On the western border is Magdalenowka (folwark Æ estate, manor), also known as Obroczna. There is a hill from the southeast of the same folwark, 686 meters above sea level; the hill between Lepietnica and Niwa of 636 meters above sea level. The southern part of the village is forest (Bor on flat land) or Grel. The rest of the southern portion or subdivision is known as Trute and is 624 meters above sea level.
    The larger portion of the territory is 69 morgen field, 25 of meadows and plowed land, 7 of pastures, 170 of field and forest. As of 1869, the smaller portion of the territory consisted of 994 morgen of field, 206 of meadows and plowed land, 110 of pastures, 6 of forest (1869).
In 1777, there were 73 houses, 370 Christians.
In 1779, there were 95 houses, 520 Christians, and 5 Jews
In 1824, there were 102 houses, 561 Christians, and no Jews.
In 1869, there were 128 houses, 679 Christians (324 men and 355 women).
In 1880, there were 738 Christians.
    The village belongs to the parish in Klikuszowa. In a document from 1636, it shows 5 farm homes, paying a yearly total of 55 zl, 15 gr. Tax from the 3 farms were11 zl, and from the empty fields, 6 zl. The total tax was 72 zl, 15 gr. In document of 1660, the village had 7 farms homes, 4 out workers, and 1 mill. They paid a total of 106 zl, 20 gr. In 1765 there were 12 farms, 6 huts and 2 mills. Income yearly from all came to 1294 zl, 3 gr, 15 den (?). The court and post office are in Nowy Targ. The owner was Eugenia Fihauser.
    Submitted and Translated by: Rose Szczech (Apr 1998)

    Laski, a settlement in Swiecie county, on the stream Brzezina, in a sanded, woody area; 630 morgs of land, 67 buildings, 30 houses, with 132 Catholic inhabitants and 24 Protestant. It is served by the Sliwice parish church and post office and the school in Lazek. [Rev. Fr.] gliwice, German name Gross Schliewitz, a churchowned village in the Tuchola Forest, on the river Sliwiczka, 25.7 km. northeast of Tuchola, on the edge of Tuchola county. It is about 22 km. from the railroad line TucholaStarogard and eastward; it has 1,622 hectares (26 of forests, 281 of meadows, 916 of farmland). In 1868 it had 985 inhabitants; in 1885 it had 175 houses, 231 hearths, and 1,246 inhabitants, 1,142 of them Catholic, 68 Protestant, and 36 Jewish. In 1887 Protestant services were held here for the first time in the school building. There is a pastor, but he does not yet have a church. There is a 4-classroom.
    Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Fall 1999 Bulletin.

    Current administrative location: Latkowo, Gmina Inowrocław, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland. Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Latkowo, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.
    A dominium located in powiat Inowrocław. The Latkowo dominium has an area of land equal to 1970 morgs. Latkowo has 9 houses with 229 inhabitants (181 Catholics and 48 Evangelical Protestants). There are 115 inhabitants that are illiterate. Latkowo has a brickyard, chicory factory, and a race horse breeder. The post office, telegraph office, and railway station are located about 4.5 kilometers away in Inowrocław. The entry did not list the village’s parish. The Orłowo Parish is located 2-3 kilometers away.
    Translated by Al Wierzba, December 2009.

    A small town in Oszmiana county; 3rd police district; 66.3 Miles from Wilno and 41.8 miles from Oszmiana; 456 inhabitants; the property is owned partly by the government treasury and partly owned by Weronika Korwin Milewska. In 1817 the town and estate were the property of Jozef Wolodkiewiez, then later of Samuel Laniewski Wolk, from whom it went to Milewska. The town has a branch of the Subotniki parish church, named for Sts. Simon Jude and Anne. It was founded in 1744 and made of wood, and rebuilt in 1853 by Samuel Wolk; the branch has 4,336 souls.
    Translated by Michael Gansecki and William F. Hoffman, PGSA May 2000 Rodziny.

Lazduny – in Oszmiana powiat
    In 1407 Jan Monwid, voivode of Wilno, received Lazduny, along with other benefits, from the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Witold. For centuries afterwards it belonged to the Radziwill family, who mortgaged it. Among others, the Dominicans from Poporcie leased it at the beginning of the 18th century (until 1787). Later Bishop Zienkowicz of Wilno took it over. In 1806 the last possessor of entail, Prince Dominick Radziwill, made a present of Lazduny to Jozef Wollowicz, from whom Samuel Wolk (-Laniewski) acquired it around 1810. It later went by way of dowry to Edmund Korsak, from whom his brother-in-law, Oskar Milewski, redeemed it. Today, it isowned by his son Hipolit.
    Translated by Michael Gansecki, PGSA August 2000 Rodziny. Used with permission

Leki Dolne
    Two villages in Pilzno powiat, on the county road from Pilzno to Rygiel. Leki Dolne is located 4 km. west of the town of Pilzno, Leki Górne is 4 km. farther west. Both villages are in an area of rolling countryside, covered to the north and south by fir forests, on a small tributary of the left bank of the Wisloka. There is a Roman Catholic parish church in Leki. The populace of Leki Dolne consists of 1,538 persons, of whom 21 live on the grounds of the major estate, owned by the Tarnów Savings Bank, and 14 live on the manorial farmstead called “Wygoda.” The population of Leki Górne consists of 1,700 persons, of whom 122 live on the grounds of the major estate, the property of W. Brzozowski. The ecclesiastical szematyzm gives the total population as 3,390 Roman Catholics and 159 Jews. In Leki Górne there is a church made of larch wood dating from 1312, with a beautiful Byzantine image on the side altar; there was also once a prebenda called St. Wojciech’s, funded by Wojciech Romer with income from 4 peasant farms, but it was abolished in 1836. There is also a fund for the needy, established 19 November 1795 by Michal and Katarzyna Letowski, who increased the previous fund of Wojciech Romer from 1638 for the upkeep of 13 paupers. This fund has a capital of 500 zlotys in Austrian currency and a yearly addition of 131 zlotys from the owners of Leki Dolne. The pastor administers the fund. A national school is located in Leki Górne.
    In Dlugosz’s day (see Dfugosz, Liber beneficiorum, Vol. I, p. 811) Leki belonged to Zaklika of Miedzygórz, and it had 20 peasant lans.  Siarczyiiski mentions (manuscript in the Ossolineum Library, Vol. I, p. 255) that at the beginning of this century flax cultivation flourished here, and that there were many weaving establishments. At that time Leki Dolne belonged to the Bobrownicki family, and Leki Górne to the Lubieniecki family. Emigration to America from Leki motivated Anczyc to writeEmigracya chlopska [Translator’s note: “Peasant Emigration’~- apparently referring to a work by the writer Wladyslaw Ludwik Anczyc, 1823-1883].
    In the 17th century Aryans of the Lubieniecki family built a Baroque-style meeting-place in Leki Górne, which was abandoned after the fall of Aryanism [Translator’s Note: the Arianie, also called the Bracia Polscy, “Polish Brothers,” a radical socio-religious movement in the 17th century, connected with the Socinians, were expelled from Poland in 1658] and was turned into a manor sometime after 1830. It is a two-story tenement with a mezzanine and two decorative side facades reminiscent of the Sukiennice in Kraków. Downstairs and on the second floor are rooms with beautiful arched vaults; in one half of the house there was a chapel. The building stands in a lovely garden with ancient beeches and spruces. Warsaw’s Tygodnik illustrowany [Illustrated Weekly] gave a sketch of the manor in 1882.
    The major estate in Leki Górne has 633 morgas of farmland, 74 of meadows and gardens, 115 of pastureland, and 655 of woods; the minor estate has 2,139 morgas of farmland, 288 of meadows and gardens, 405 of pastureland, and 108 of woods. The major estate in Leki Dolne has 681 morgas of farmland, 72 of meadows and gardens, 38 of pastureland, and 389 of woods; the minor estate has 1,513 morgas of farmland, 234 of meadows and gardens, 180 of pastureland, and 150 of woods.
    The parish belongs to the Diocese of Tarnów, deanery of Pilzno, and it has a branch church in Machowa. Leki borders to the east on Dolczówka, to the west on Szynwald, to the north on Podgórska Wola and Machowa, and to the south on Zwiernik and Zalasowa.
    Submitted by: Rita Koziol, Scottsdale AZ. Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Fall 1998 Bulletin.

Lendowo – in the County of Mazowsze
    A noble’s village, in the township and parish of Piekuty, 3Kms from Piekuty and 18 Kms from the county seat. There are 7 homes, 48 Roman Catholic inhabitants, 80 acres, land of medium soil, and plenty of brushwood for fire.
    Lendowo came into existence in 1880 on the land of the estate of Markow the Great within the Russian Empire; the owner, having 80 acres of land in the territory of the Polish Kingdom, sold it to the nobles.
    The new village lies on the boundary of the Empire and the Kingdom, it previously had the name of the sacred spot of Buda; from the settlement of nobles it was named Lendowo, in honor of the priest Lendo, the former administrator of the parish in Piekuty, now administrator of the parish in Jedwabne in the county of Kolno. The name of the village was approved by the authorities.
    Submitted by: Stan Schmidt, Roselle, IL (Dec 1996)

Leśno / Leszno
    In documents of the Knights of the Cross: “Leyste”. A knightly estate and peasant parish village in the county of Chojnice, between 2 lakes: little- and great- Lubowo (?) or Luban~ (?), from which flows out the stream Zbrzyca, in a forested and sandy area, at the boundary with Koscierzyna county and on the Chojnice-Koscierzyna man road. Lesno is 8,579 morgs in size; has 72 buildings, 26 chimneys, 300 Catholics, 12 Evangelicals (Lutherans). Parish and school in town, post office at Brusy. The knightly estate by itself contains 468 hectares of arable land, 152 ha. of meadow, 329 ha. of pasture, 967 ha. of forest, 41 ha. unused, 104 ha. of water, all together 2,062 hectares. The heir (owner) is Pawel Sikorski. Three fairs are held yearly: for cattle, horses and kramne(?). Also the post office has been set up right in Lesno just recently.
    In 1354 Winryk von Kniprode, the grand master of the Knights of the Cross, signed over as hereditary possession by Che1m law 40 hides in “Leyste” (Lesno) and the lake Mate Lubowo to Dytryk in boundaries as they are designated.
    “The great lake Luban we keep for ourselves. For this Dytryk will perform service in war armed and with horse; he will also give help in building castles, etc. And because the soil is not rich, they will give us each year from each hide a bushel of wheat, also to the bishop (let them do) their duty.” A ze tam role skape, miasto pluznego dadza nam co rok od wloki po korcu owsa, takze i biskupowi powinnosc swoje uczynia.”
    In Polish times the estate of Lesno lay in the starostaship of Tuchola. The Lustration of the year 1570 writes: “In the village of Lesno there are 4 empty hides, 2 inns, and 5 hortulani (scil.? beside the noble estate).” In 1664 we read, “In Lesno there are 40 hides, 4 soltyses (head of a hamlet, below a wojt, 4 pastors, for which they showed they had received the right of inheriting from the Knights of the Cross. King J.M. (Jego Majestat) Wladyslaw IV confirmed this right in 1636; 3 Lehnmann (rented out?) hides; they showed the right of “Lehn” confirmed from Jan Kazimierz in 1652; the “Lehners” give 137 zlote in rent. Two soltyses and 4 innkeepers of Lesno are obliged to serve together with others according to a prescribed order (chain of priority) as forest guards over wild bees’ nests and the virgin forest. In 1686 the “possessor” was Jezierski. A new wooden church was built here in 1710; it was from earlier times a filial church connected to Brusy; only after the restitution of the original parish system was it detached as an independent parish by the decree of Feb. 10, 1859, mostly by the efforts of Jerzy Jeszki, suffragan bishop of Chelm. Lesno parish counts 2748 souls. The title of the church is the Holy Cross, it is not known when it was founded or consecrated. Next to it is a hospital for 4 poor, run by the brotherhood of sobriety from 1861.
    The villages in the parish are Lesno, Orlik, Larnk, Gltowczewice, Warsin, Kaszuba, Widno, Laska Stara, Laska Nowa, Rolbik, Kruszyn, Paszyn, Windorp, Peplin, Skoszewo, Skoszewko, Zwangshof, Ledy, Wysoka, Kloniecznica, Trzebun, Radun, Dunajki.
    Catholic schools: in Lesno 77 Catholic children; the teacher is at the same time organist; in Trzebun 78 children; in Windorp 84; in Widno 55; in Radun 67. See Transcripts of Dreger, a manuscript in the archives of Peplin, p. 106; the transcripts of the Tuchola privilege, a manuscript from Belno (?), p. 59, also schema of the diocese of Chelm, p. 289.
    Submitted & translated by Gerald R. Schmidt, Pittsburgh, PA

    Leżajsk, a free royal town, 41º5’ east longitude and 50º16’ north latitude from Ferro, lies on the left bank of the river San. It is 220 meters above sea level, situated in the county of Łancut. We find its first historical mention in 1354 during the reign of Kazimierz Wielki (Casimer the Great). The town is very neat and orderly with one-story houses, surrounded by small gardens. Leżajsk is divided into three sections: the central city proper, the lower portion, and the monastery area. The last section, considerably built up is two kilometers from the center of town, and is renowned for its landmark, a splendid monastery of the Bernardine Fathers, dating from 1608 and still functioning. The central part has a spacious city square, from which three main roads or routes emanate. To the north, the road leads to the monastery area, then continues to Ruda and the border of Galicia. To the south, the route leads to Żołynia and Łancut. The third road leads to Sieniawa, before making a sharp turn to the southeast.
    According to the last census, there were 4,945 inhabitants, of whom 2,539 were Catholics, 430 were Greek Catholics and 32 were non-Catholics. There was a total of 1,944 Israelites. Leżajsk covered an expanse of 1,641 ha, or over four thousand acres. In 1884 its working capital totaled 4,186 złoty. In 1882 the town’s net income netted 7,797 złoty, Austrian value. Leżajsk has a Roman Catholic parish, as well as a Greek Catholic one. There was a four-classroom school for boys and a three-classroom school for girls.
    Other amenities included a notary, a doctor, a pharmacy, and the courthouse for the county of Łancut, which totaled 38,194 people. There were two banks, one with a treasury of 1,710 złoty, the other 2,443 złoty. In 1884 Count Alfred Potocki of Łancut established a foundation of 4,108 złoty (zł.) to aid unfortunate artisans and craftsmen. There was also a special fund of 2,100 zł. that earned 840 zł. yearly. It was established in the 16th century by an anonymous benefactor to maintain a shelter for handicapped people. One of Leżajsk’s oldest industries is wool dyeing and weaving, which produced a strong cloth material called “baize”.
    The beautiful brick church was built by Feliks from Skarzyszowa. In former times it was protected by defense walls and towers. The Greek Catholic church was also a brick edifice. The largest and dominant place of worship, however, was and still is the Monastery of Our Lady of Consolation staffed by the Bernardine Fathers. The basilica is the site of pilgrimages from all of Poland during holy days and seasons.
    The original Roman Catholic parish was established by King Władyslaw Jagiełło. In 1400 in Biecz, he declared an endowment for the existing church. Prior to this in 1397, he raised the village then known as “Lenżajski”to the status of a city. This historic event occured in a suburb of Leżajsk now known as Stare Miasto (Old Town). He proclaimed that henceforth, the city be known as the “King’s Town”. He sold the title and office of bailiff to Stanisław Jasienski, a townsman from Przeworski, for 4,800 Polish “groszy”.
    Wladysław Jagiełło donated to the city one mile of forest land on both sides of the San River, as well as the forests situated between the river Ozana (now the Złota) and the river Kolna. He also donated eight fields to the church. He assigned the Madgeburg style governing and civil laws and designated Thursdays as market days. The settlers were granted a tax-free status. Six years were tax-free for those living on farms, 14 years for those settling in thickets, and 20 years for those living in the dense oak forests. Upon expiration of the specified time, they were assessed a small tax of six “groszy”. One stipulation was that should the King or Queen decide to visit the city, the inhabitants were required to offer them gifts of capons, eggs and other staples.
    In 1439 the church and parish were assigned to the Canons of the Holy Sepulchre, who administered it until 1839. In 1494 town rights were granted by King Jan Olbracht (John I, Albert). In the document the town was referred to as “Layżaysko”.
    Soon disaster struck. The Tatar scourge beset Poland, and Leżajsk was attacked in the years 1498, 1500, 1509 and 1519. In an effort to aid Leżajsk in restoring its economy, Zygmunt Stary (Sigismund I The Elder) initiated fairs and markets in 1519. Five years later in 1524, the Tatar hordes sacked and pillaged the town again. Sigismund rebuilt the town and absolved the inhabitants from paying taxes for 12 years. He also reestablished the markets and trade fairs. To protect the town from more attacks, he instructed the sheriff to build a castle and fortifications, giving them access to the forest timber for the building. He forbade the natives to brew beer and other spirits.
    In 1534 he allowed his Italian wife, Queen Bona Sforza, to purchase the town. Her proprietorship was commendable, marked by an era of growth and expansion. In 1596 the Corpus Christi Church was built on the road to Giedlarowa and in 1611, the Mary Magdalene Church was erected in Wierzawice, as well as a third wooden church in the town proper.
The end of the 16th century and the start of the 17th brought more disasters due to religious discord. Between 1604 and 1609 a bitter feud erupted between Stanisław Stadnicki of Łancut and Lukasz Opalinski, the sheriff of Leżajski. The bone of contention was a hunting dog. Stadnicki, who embraced the Reformation, was a mean person and was dubbed “the devil of Łancut” by his neighbors. He gathered an army in Hungary and Wallachia and sacked Leżajsk. Before he was defeated, he succeeded in burning the church and its archives. Count Opalinski survived and in thanksgiving, he funded the construction of the Bernardine Monastery, 1618-1628.
    In 1616 Zygmunt III arranged to have the Leżajsk church rebuilt. It was completed in 1619. The Tatars again invaded Leżajsk in 1623, burned the town and took many inhabitants into captivity. In 1656 Leżajsk was invaded by Carl Gustav, King of Sweden. The inhabitants were scattered and the defense castle was burned. In 1657 Leżajsk was invaded by the Cossacks and General Rakoczy of Austria. In 1702-04 Carl II and his Swedish army again invaded Leżajsk. The town was unable to recover quickly and in 1765, the town’s income barely generated 210 złoty. In an attempt to rebuild, the populace was granted free transport over the San River. They were allowed to brew “wisniak” (cherry liqueur) and mead.
    During this time and until 1772, Leżajsk was passed to the Austrian empire in the first partition of Poland. Joseph Potocki then moved his offices to Łancut where the Potocki castle is now a museum and a tourist attraction. In 1819 the ownership of Leżajsk transferred to the Mierów family, from whom it was purchased by Count Alfred Potocki, the father of the governor of Galicia. Leżajsk was consumed by fire in 1834 and 1873.
    Besides the parish church there was the church of the Holy Trinity in the neighboring town of Stare Miasto, a wooden structure built on the sight of the original church. Other churches included the Corpus Christi Church, a chapel in the castle, and the Bernardine Fathers’ Monastery. By 1890 only the monastery church was functioning.
    The present parish and church in Leżajsk belong to the decanate of Leżajsk in the diocese of Przemysł. The parish consists of the following villages: Dębno, Hucisko, Jelna, Judaszówka, Łukowa, Piskorowice, Przychojec, Rzuchów, Siedlanka, Stare Miasto and Wierzawice. All these villages combined total 8,594 Roman Catholics, 1,985 Israelites and 85 others. The Greek Catholic parish consists of Stare Miasto, Siedlanka, Przychojec, Lukowa, Jelna, Hucisko, Ruda-Jande and Wierzawice. It belongs to the decanate of Kanczuga and totals 1,920 parishioners.
    The Bernardine Fathers’ Monastery of Our Lady of Consolation is situated about two kilometers from the central part of Leżajsk. Many pilgrimages are taken by Poles during the year. The architect was Antonio Pellaccini of Italy, and the style is renowned as the finest Renaissance building in Galicia. Its sculptures, paintings, frescoes and icons were the work of many famous artisans of the period. The church is divided into three naves. Each nave is served separately by the massive organ, which is the largest in Galicia and Austria. It was built at a cost of 10,000 złoty and commissioned by Stanisław Studzinski of Przeworsk circa 1680. The work was completed in 1693 by Jan Głowinski from Kraków. The monastery and its church are situated on a small elevation surrounded by a forest of trees on three sides. The fourth has a view to the west and the river San with a sandy embankment. It is still enclosed by defense walls.
    The Bernardine Fathers were brought from Przeworsk to Leżajsk by Maciej Pstrokoński in 1608; Pstrokoński at this time was the bishop of Przemysł. The Fathers were installed at the wooden church of Our Lady, situated outside the town on a sandy soil. Many miracles brought attention to the painting of Our Lady of Consolation, and the subsequent pilgrim traffic caught the attention of King Zygmunt III. He donated some land to the Fathers on which to build a new convent and church, and gifted them with a pond and a mill. In 1618, Count Lucas Opaliński initiated the construction that lasted ten years. In the interim he granted generous alms and privileges to the Fathers, which King Jan Kazimierz (John Casimer) confirmed in 1653. In 1630, the bishop of Przemysł, Adam Nowodworski, blessed the new church at its dedication ceremonies. Four years later after a canonical review, Bishop Henryk Firlej of Przemysł declared the icon of Our Lady of Consolation as “miraculous”. With the permission of Pope Benedict XIV, Bishop Wacław Sierakowski of Przemysł consecrated and crowned the painting on September 8, 1752.
    Market days were held in Leżajsk on January 21, April 23, August 15, September 24, October 4 and December 6. Trade fairs were held every Tuesday and Friday.
    Leżajsk’s neighbors are the following towns and villages: Stare Miasto on the south, on the west beyond the large forests lie the villages of Jelna, Maliniska and Brzoza Królewska. On the north lie Gillershof, Giedlarowa and Wierzawice. The river San flows on its west.
    Father Francis, Count Pawlowski, was born in Leżajsk in 1807. In 1867 the scientist W. Jablonski did much research on the flora and fauna found in the vicinity of Leżajsk. In 1879 while living in Jasło, Father Maryan Podgorski, a curate of Wallachian birth, wrote the book Ławica Leżajsk (Leżajsk Sand-Bank). It was dedicated to the sacred memory of Wiscisława of Leżajsk, a Franciscan nun who was murdered by the Mongols in Zawichoście in 1260.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

    Łęcźkowice, in German “Ortsverzeichniss”, is now called Łęźkowice. In 1882 it was called Łesźkowice, and in the schematics of Tarnów diocese issued in 1880 was spelled Łęźkowice. Located in the county of Bochnia, it lies on the left bank of the river Raba, at the point where a small stream called Połom flows into the Raba. In an area where two arms of the Raba converge, a small island existed, covered with a small forest. The main road leading from Zakrzewo to Ksiąźnice passes through the village. When Łęźkowice was just a small settlement, it was the property of Klemens from Ruszcza. According to the historian Długosz, in his book Liber Beneficiorum volume I, page 265, it covered 4½ łan (fields) held by the farmers, measured according to the Franconian system. The village and the estate eventually passed into the hands of a convent in Staniątki, as recorded in the Diplomatic Kodex of Poland III in 1238. The soil on these farms was very fertile.
    In the later years, Łęźkowice was annexed to the parish in Chełm; at this time the inhabitants counted 244, of whom 13 resided on one of the large farmsteads. This farmstead covered 107 morgen (mr.) of farms, 14 mr. of meadows and gardens, 17 mr. of pastureland, and 21 mr. of forests. A second farmstead consisted of 186 mr. of farmland, 16 mr. of meadows and gardens, and 32 mr. of pastures. The town’s name, Łęźkowice, is derived from the Polish word “łęg”, which means “moor”, thus the correct spelling should be Łęźkowice. The village borders Targowisko on the north, Ksiąźnice on the south, and Grodkowice on the northwest.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

Lidzbark – in the County of Brodnica
    German Lautenburg or Luttenberg, Lutenburg. Liczburg. Ludbarz (found in documents listed as such), town and village and a forestry region belonging to the king, county Brodnica on the paved road leading from Brodnica to Dzialdowo, near the East Prussia border on a significant lake Lidzbark and the river Wel, which crosses it and enters river Drweca, besides from the court (sheriffs) ponds, there used to flow here a stream called Struzka entering river Wel.
    1) the town, area of 5644 acres, 612 buildings, 235 households and 3734 residents – 1244 Catholics and 1725 Evangelical in Lidzbark There are here Catholic and Protestant parish churches, a 3-grade Catholic school, Lutheran city schools, Post Office, Telegraph station, magistrate, a city council, a district court (Amtsgericht), a customs office, pharmacy, a physicisan, etc. A railroad from Jablonowo to Brodnica, Lidzbark and Dzialdowo is being planned in connection with the Malbork-Mlawa line.
    According to an unofficial description, from 1868 (Stat.-topogr. Addressbuch van West-Pressen) there were in Lidzbark 2 forges, 2 waterpowered mills, 1 sawmill, 3(?) breweries, 5 leather furriers, 2 wheelwrights, 9 bakers, 2 sweetshops, 1 watchmaker, 19 butchers, 9 leathermakers, 86 (?) shoemakers, 2 ropemakers, 16 taylors, a hatmaker, 8 weavers, 4 bricklayers, 4 carpenters, 4 coopers, 2 woodworkers, 2 printmakers, 1 combers, 1 chimneysweep, 6 chimney builders, 2 glassmakers, 7 smiths, 1 potmaker, 1 nailmaker, 1 sheet metalworker, 2 barbers/surgeons, 1 tobacco factory, 1 cotton factory 2 painters. Yearly markets take place 4 times for cattle, horses and stalls.
    From the history of town very scant information remains. As the church records mention, the town with the church was founded about 1301 on the German law. The first known privilege it received only in 1410 under the rule of Master Ulryk van Juningen. That master of the Knights of the Cross also created the donation document of the church here in 1409 (Pawel von Russdorf is in the records). The town Lidzbark had under the Knights of the Cross a fortified castle. The population, both in the town and in the outlying area was from the beginning mostly Polish, as the names of villages in those days testify, though their Polish character the Knights were trying hard to erase. And so, among others, the Knights’ twisted name Bladau, Blendorf means today’s village of Bladowo, Bulkendorf=Belki, Dwor 1410, Hof=dwor, Gelen=Jelen, Klonau=Klonowo, Leinau=Linowiec(?), Melensdorf=Mlyniki, Renk, Reyneke=Rynek, Selste, Selze=Chelsty, Stibor=Ciborz, Wamperschke=Wapiersk, Weyer.=Wery, etc. See Ketrzynski, Polish population, page 87. In Polish times Lidzbark town consisted with attached area of starostwo [county office] non-city Lidzbark. In 1531 King Zygmunt I, desifing to better the situation of that town, introduced markets and trade fairs here. In 1703 the Swedes razed large part of the town together with the main church, but were next seriously defeated by the Poles. According to the last inspection of the area performed in 1765, the castle didn’t exist anymore, and only a manor house stood in Lidzbark by the fiver. In 1807 a large number of Prussian and Russian soldiers were led through the town and stationed here. In 1855 came here the first Lutheran pastor.
    Non-city area of Lidzbark, in province Chelmno, land of Michalow, county Brodnica, according to inspection of 1664 included the town and villages Wompiersk, Jeleniec, Jamielnik and farm Podciborski. In 1771 it belonged to Stefan Rumocki and his wife Anna born Plaskowska, who paid from it quarter payments of 1071 Polish zloty and 7 groszy. From 13 Sep. 1772 it was under Prussian rule. Parish Lidzbark, diocese Lidzbark includes 3580 souls. A Church of St. Adalbert (Wojciech) patronate of the government, founded in 1301, date of consecration unknown. There is a hospital for the poor from 6 parishes, brotherhood of szkaplerz since 1647 and of sobriety since 1859.
    The parish villages: Lidzbark town, Lidzbark suburb or old town (German Amtsgrund Lautenburg), Belki, Bladowo, Borki, Chelsty, Ciborz, Brynsk, Ciechanowko, Jamielnik, Jelen, Klonowo, Koty, Kurodaj, Milostaj, Nowy Dwor, Nosek, Piaseczno, Podciborz, Polko, Wlewsk, Wapiersk, brickmaking factories: in Wlewsk, Jamielnik, Ciborz and Jelen. Catholic Schools: in Lidzbark (3-grade, 314 children), in Wlewsk (55 children) in Ciborz (60), in Nowy Dwor (71), in Wapiersk (59) and in Jelen (61). 30 Catholic children attend the evang. school in Brynsk. Until recently there was a second church in Lidzbark – the church of the Ascention of the Holy Virgin Mary in the Old town, (Ger. Amtsgrund Lautenburg). At first it was a church with a rectory, with a city cemetery and a hospital and had its own parish priests. During Lutheran reformation it gradually felLidzbark In the beginning of XVII century, it was again lifted off the ground by a good townsman, Wodciech Kotek and was consecrated in 1606 by bishop of Chelmno, Gebicki and joined with the city church as its branch. In the main altar it had a precious picture of Virgin Mary with Jesus by the then famous painter, Borzymowski. The above mentioned Kotek donated to the Church to better its situation two pieces of ground in Jamielnik, Anna Bobrowa gave other two pieces of ground, which were later transfered to the city church. Marcin Pudlo gave 1/2 parcel, etc. In 1647 the “brotherhood of the scapular” was created here. Unfortunately, in the folowing hard times, mainly because of the Swedish wars, it came near a fall for the second time. The second donor was Marcin Chelstowski, undersecretary of Chelmno, who again.lifted the church from the fall in 1712. New organs were bought – probably – by his wife. This church was consecrated by Bishop Feliks Kretkowski in 1725. After the Prussian occupation the Lutherans were waiting to take this church over. In 1800 there was already a decree ready to that effect, however a definitive response of Bishop Rydzynski saved it for a rejoicing district. Great help gave also the then parish priest, Matyszkiewicz, who watched over this church for over 33 years and didn’t even leave the town in a dangerous moment so as not to make the annexation easy for those of other faiths. In 1807 he writes to his superiors:
    “Through Lidzbark were led 1000 POWs, that is Russians, who were herded into the church, because it was in the suburbs. They spent the night there and desecrated the holy house to a great degree. The second time, 500 POWs, mostly Prussians, were led into the church, who broke down the benches, confessionals, altars and even set fire to the church to save themselves, but fortunately, the fire was noticed soon enough.”
    In the following times, the weakly-made church was falling ever more, in 1850 it was taken apart and sold for 200 talars. See lost churches in the Chelmno diocese, page 137. Besides the above mentioned church, in Lidzbark there were two other churches, originally parish churches, in Wlewsk and Wapiersk. The Lidzbark diocese now quite small for many reasons, include. 8377 souls, 4 parish churches: in Lidzbark, Boleszyn, Mroczno and Radoszki, plus a branch in Kielpin. In the old days it had twice as many churches and the 2 still existing in Lecko and Przelek are in the newly created diocese in Pomezan and 3 mentioned above are gone in Lidzbark, Wapiersk and Wlewsk. There are 14 parish schools in in diocese, 5 ministers.
    2) Lidzbark village and mill, 107 acres, 29 bldgs, 148 Catholic, 88 Evangelical.
    3) Forestry royal region Lidzbark, newly created in 1877. See. Dzialdowka.
    Submitted by: Martin C. Mazurk, Elmhurst, IL 60126 (Dec 1996)

    As recorded in 1884, the village and estate is in the Lipno district township Osiek, and is located 22 kilometers from Lipno; with a wooden parish church, an elementary school and an inn. In 1827 there were 21 houses and 168 inhabitants. In 1884 the village had 15 houses and 232 inhabitants. Actually Ligowo is the biggest village close to Boguchwala and has a magnifi- cent Neo-Gothic Roman Catholic church constructed about 1910.
    Submitted by: Henryk Skrzypinski, From the PGS of California Newsletter

    Lipa, (Upper and Lower) – in Ukrainian Lypa, is a village in the county of Dobromil, 35 km. northeast of Dobromil, 5 km. northwest of the county court and post office in Bircza, 22 km. north-northwest from the nearest railroad station in Zalupu. Jawornik Ruski and Zohatyn lie to the northwest, Kotow to the northeast, Rudowka to the east, Malawa to the southeast, Brzyzawa to the southwest and Ulucz to the west. The stream called Brzyzowka flows to the southwest for a short distance along the western border from south to north. Flowing in the same direction, it flows into the village then twists to the southwest towards Malawa where its name changes to Malawka. It is fed by smaller streams from both its right and left banks.
    The buildings in the village are located throughout its whole land area and from various groups of houses and sub-settlements called Capera (aka Capora), Kiczary, Kopanie, Kuzie, Lackie, Przysada, Uluckie, and Wola (aka Morochow). In the southwest part of the village’s land area, the Sucha mountain rises to an elevation of 475 meters. The larger land holdings consist of 604 morgs of arable land, 47 morgs of fields and gardens, 97 morgs of grazing area and 582 morgs of forest. The lesser land holdings consist of 1,228 morgs of arable land, 126 morgs of fields and gardens, 349 morgs of grazing area and 43 morgs of forest. In 1880 there were 1,250 people in the district, of whom 13 resided in the manor.
    Of this population 160 were Roman Catholic, the rest were Greek Catholic. The Roman “Catholic parish is in Bircza. There is a Greek Catholic church in the village. It is in the deanery of Bircza, Diocese of Przemysl, belonging to it also are Brzezawa, Dobrzaka, and Malawa. In the village is a Greek Catholic church, a one class school house, mill and sawmill.
    Translated into English by Prof. Jonathan Shea.

    Current administrative location: Lipie, Gmina Gniewkowo, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland. Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Lipie, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.
    6) A colony located in powiat Inowrocław. Lipie has 5 houses with 45 inhabitants (32 Catholics and 13 Evangelical Protestants). There are 28 inhabitants that are illiterate. The post office, telegraph office, and railway station are located in Gniewkowo (German name: Argenau), which is about 3 kilometers away. The Slownik entry for Lipie did not list a parish, but according to the Family History Library Catalog entry for the Gniewkowo Parish, Lipie belonged to the Gniewkowo Parish.
    Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009.

    A village in the parish and gmina Kopciowo, powiate, Sejny. 42 versts from Sejny. 26 houses and 274 residents. There was no village here in 1827 nor in Skorowidzu Zinberga.
    Translated by Dorothy Leivers, Hadlow, Kent, England

Lipuska Huta
    In German, Lippuschhutte. A peasant village in Kokierzyna county, about 2 miles from Koscierzyna, given by privilege from Gdailsk on April 1, 1820. It encompasses ],10 1 morgs; has 4 gburs, 18 zagrodniks, 108 Catholics, 12 dwelling houses. Parish and school at Lipusz, post office at Kalisz.
    Submitted & translated by Gerald R. Schmidt, Pittsburgh, PA

Lipuska Huta
    Current administrative location: Lipuska Huta, Gmina Lipusz, Powiat Kościerzyna, Województwo Pomorskie, Poland. >Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Lippuschhutte, Kreis Berent, Regierungsbezirk Danzig, Westpreußen, German Empire.
    The village’s German name is Lippuschhutte. Lipuska Huta is a peasant village located in powiat Kościerzyna. The village is about 2 miles from the town of Kościerzyna. The village was given an area of 1101 morg as a privilege from Gdansk on April 1, 1820. The village has 4 farmers that own their own land and 18 crofts (enclosed sections of farmland). There are 108 Catholics and 12 homes. The Catholic Parish and Catholic school are located in Lipusz. The post office for Lipuska Huta is located in Kalisz.
    Translated by Al Wierzba, August 2009.

Lipuska Huta Szlanna
    In German Lippusch-Glashutte. Estate and glass factory in the county of Koscierzyna. It embraces an area of 95 ha. of which 88 are in arable land, .30 ha. are in meadow, 1.50 ha are in pasture, .40 ha are in forest and 3.90 ha. are unused. The possessor is Karol Hindenberg. The parish and school are in Lipusz; the post office is in Kalisz. There are 68 Catholics and 48 Lutherans. There are 7 dwelling houses. The distance from Koscierzyna is 2 1/2 miles. In Polish times this estate was the property of the starosta of Koscierzyna; after the occupation, it was given into perpetual leasehold by a privilege from Kwidzyn on 24th of July, 1810.
    Submitted & translated by Gerald R. Schmidt, Pittsburgh, PA

Lipuska Huta Szlanna
    Current administrative location: Szklana Huta, Gmina Lipusz, Powiat Kościerzyna, Województwo Pomorskie, Poland. Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Lippusch-Glashutte, Kreis Berent, Regierungsbezirk Danzig, Westpreußen, German Empire.
    The German name is Lippusch-Glashutte. It has a goods and glass factory. It is located in powiat Kościerzyna. It covers an area of 88 hectares of arable farmland, .30 hectares of meadows, 1.50 hectares of pasture, .40 hectares of forests, 3.90 hectares of unused land, which all together totaled 95 hectares owned by Karol Hindenberg. The parish and school are located in Lipusz. The post office for Lipuska Huta Szklana is located in Kalisz. There are 68 Catholics, 48 Evangelical Protestants, and 7 houses. It is a distance of 2 1/2 miles from Kościerzyna. During the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, it belonged to the jurisdiction of the starosta of Kościerzyna. On July 24, 1810, Kwidzyn granted the village the privilege of perpetual lease.
    Translated by Al Wierzba, August 2009.

Lipuska Papiernia
    In German, Lippusch-Papier-Muhle. A possession, with a mill, in Koscierzyna county, on Czarna Woda. It encompasses a total area of 165.91 ha. of which 102 ha. is arable land, 25 ha. is meadow, 20 ha. is pasture; 2.5 ha. are not used, 15 ha. is water. The possessor is Zelewski. There are 29 Catholics, 43 Lutherans, 6 dwelling houses. The parish and school are at Lipusz. The post office is at Wygoda. The distance from Ko’cierzyna is 2 miles. In Polish times there was a paper mill here, the property of the starosta of Koscierzyna and paper really was made at the mill. in more recent times mainly because of the inconvenience of placement, the manufacturing of paper was abandoned and the old mill was turned into a water mill and sawmill. This estate received privileges in Polish times, e.g., in 1582; in Prussian times in 1831 when it was given over into perpetual lease.
    Submitted & translated by Gerald R. Schmidt, Pittsburgh, PA

Lipuska Papiernia
    Current administrative location: Papiernia, Gmina Lipusz, Powiat Kościerzyna, Województwo Pomorskie, Poland. Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Lippusch-Papiermuhle, Kreis Berent, Regierungsbezirk Danzig, Westpreußen, German Empire.
    The German name was Lippusch-Papiermuhle. It possesses a mill. It is located in powiat Kościerzyna along the Czarna River. It covers an area of 102 hectares of arable farmland, 25 hectares of meadows, 20 hectares of pasture, 2.5 hectares of unused land, 15 hectares of water, which all together totaled 165.91 hectares that are owned by the Zelewski family. There are 29 Catholics, 43 Evangelical Protestants, and 6 houses. The parish and school are located in Lipusz. The post office for Lipuska Papiernia is located in Wygoda. It is a distance of 2 miles from Kościerzyna.
    During the time of Polish ownership, the village was called Papiernia and the village was the property of the Kościerzyna starosta (district chief). The village actually produced paper. In more recent times, mainly due to an inconvenient location, the old paper mill was abandoned and converted into a water mill and sawmill. In 1582, the Polish government granted privileges to the estate. In 1831, the Prussian government granted the village a perpetual lease.
    Translated by Al Wierzba, August 2009.

    In German Lippusch. A peasant church village in the county of Koscierzyna on the river Czarna Woda, which turns a mill here and a sawmill, 1/4 mile from the beaten track between Chojnice and Koscierzyna, at the border of (the German province of) Pomerania and the Polish county of Kartuzy. It embraces in addition Folwark Lipuski and adjacent built-up areas: Karpno, Konitop, Krugliniec, Lubiszewo, Mechowo, and Wallachei; it encompasses 8,334 morgs, 12 gburs (probably same as coloni: farmers with enough land, equipment and a horse to support themselves), 16 zagrodniks (hortulani: farmers with less than that amount, who usually don’t own their house but do get to cultivate a small vegetablegarden for themselves), 557 Catholics, 107 Lutherans, 55 dwelling houses.
    In the place are a Catholic parish church, a Lutheran church filial to the one in Koscierzyna, a sawmill, a water mill, 3 inns. There are 2 yearly fairs – for barter and cattle; there are Catholic and Lutheran schools. The post office is at Kalisz. The distance from Koscierzyna is 2 miles. It is the property of Zeleski. In Polish times Lipusz constituted the estate of the starosta of Koscierzyna. In 1560 Mikoiaj Kostka, province of (Polish) Pomerania, was the renter (tenuta) of Lipusz. In 1765 Lukasz Piechowski. In 1743 the impious innkeeper from Zolno, condemned to death for blasphemy, ransomed himself by means of a large sum of money, which by and by found its way to building the present church. In 1746 was erected in Lipusz a new church dedicated to SS. Peter and Paul, in whose honor was a great church festival and fair. In 1779 the folwark was put out to perpetual lease by a privilege of Jan. 27th in Kwidzyn.
    Lipusz parish counts 3,569 souls. It is not known when the church dedicated to St. Michael archangel, under state patronage was founded. After the earlier one’s being burnt down, a new one was built around 1867. there is no hospital connected to the church. There is a “Brotherhood” of the Rosary from 1715 and of Sobriety from 1855. The villages in the parish are: Lipusz, Kalisz, Tuszkowy, Skwierawy, Grzybowo, Plocice, Wawrzyniec, Dziemiany, Lipuska Huta, Sluza, Jabluszko, Dywan, Pelki, Trawice, Turzonka, Borowiec, Kruszewo, Slone Wielkie i Male, Wyrowno, Szwedzki Ostrow, Schodno, Gostomko, Zolno, Sciborz, Zdroje.
    Catholic parish schools: 1. In Lipusz with 90 children; 2. in Kalisz with 99 children; 3. in Dziemiany with 132 children; 4. in Tuszkowy with 87 children and 5. in Skwierawy.
    Submitted & translated by Gerald R. Schmidt, Pittsburgh, PA (Feb 2001)

    Current administrative location: Łojewo, Gmina Inowrocław, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland. Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Lojewo, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.
    1) A village located in powiat Inowrocław, near the fertile and far reaching area around the arm of the Goplana Lake. Łojewo has 20 houses with 217 inhabitants (188 Catholics and 29 Evangelical Protestants). There are 72 inhabitants that are illiterate. The local branch office is located in Łojewo. The post office and railway station are located about 7 kilometers away in Inowrocław. (Por. Kod. dypl. pol. I, 178). The entry did not list the village’s parish. The Góra Parish is located 2-3 kilometers away.
    Translated by Al Wierzba, December 2009.

    Łopienno, a town and a municipality in the county of Wągrowiec, lies in a sandy area on a small lake. It covers two sections, the town itself and a large folwark (farmstead) belonging to the local parish. In 1881 there were 1002 inhabitants. In 1871 there were 89 houses and 943 inhabitants; 81 were Evangelicals, 816 were Catholics, and 46 were Jews. There were 275 people who were illiterate. The church and the parish were part of the deanery of Gniezno’s Sts. Peter and Paul Church. There was an elementary school with a few classrooms in the town that also had a pharmacy, a postal agency, and a telegraph office. The high road from Gniezno to Kcynia ran through Łopienno. A private omnibus from Kłecko to Janowiec Wlkp. (Wielkopolski) also passed through Łopienno. The railroad station was in Rogozno (in German Rogasen) 12 kilometers distant. To the south, there was a railroad station in Gniezno, 26 kilometers away.
    In 1811 there were 70 houses with 306 inhabitants; in 1833 there were 551 of whom 525 were Roman Catholics; the Evangelicals numbered 5, the Jews numbered 21. In 1519, the town gained city rights and privileges by a decree issued by King Zygmunt I (Sigismund). The decree was issued and granted at the request of Jan Łaski, Archbishop of Gniezno and Andrzej Zakrzewski, a nobleman and secretary. The laws of governing were changed from Polish to the German style. The populace was given permission to present their claims before a local sheriff. The residents were permitted to have market days weekly, and two fairs were allowed per year. They were permitted to display their wares on tables, in the same fashion as practiced at the Archbishop fairs in Znin. The commodities for sale would be the same as offered in the markets in Gniezno. For ten years the merchants were free from paying taxes, tariffs and custom house fees on their products. However, in the event of a war, they were asked to give two horses for the military wagons, as well as two grzywna (coins) and a driver for the wagon.
    After the Zakrzewski noble family, Łopienno became the property of the Latalski noble family (as described in the Kodex of Polish diplomats, Volume 11, page 514).
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

Łopienno Villa
    Łopienno, a large estate and village in the county of Wągrowiec, had a folwark (farmstead) covering 4438 morgen − 3400 mr. farmland, and three villages, i.e., Łopienno the estate, the village of Frydrykowo (Friedrich-shof) a large farmstead, and a farmstead called Julianowo (Julienau) with a large forest. There were 17 houses, 303 inhabitants, of whom 103 were Evangelicals and 200 were Catholics, 142 people were illiterate. The area had a post office and telegraph station. The railroad station was in Rogozno, 12 kilometers distant.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

    Current administrative location: Łowiczek, Gmina Bądkowo, Powiat Aleksandrów, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland. Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Łowiczek, Powiat Nieszawa, Gubernia Warszawske, Vistula Land, Russian Empire.
    A village and estate located in powiat Nieszawa and gmina Bądkowo. It belongs to the Łowiczek Parish. Łowiczek is located among the forests, south of Lake Skępe. In 1827, there were 31 houses with 165 inhabitants. The wooden church was built in 1711, in a village field, by Krzysztof Słubicki. The parish was named after Saint Krzyża and St. Isydor. In 1757, Reverend Franciszek Kanigowski, the Bishop of Włocławek, consecrated the parish. The Łowiczek Parish had 940 souls (parishioners).
    The Łowiczek estate was comprised of the folwarks of Łowiczek and Szwinki; the villages of Łowiczek, Szwinki, Kamieniec, Józefowo; and the colonies of Kańsko and Tomaszewo. The Łowiczek estate’s land area was 2224 morgs.
    The Łowiczek folwark: 1062 morgs of arable farm and garden land, 86 morgs of meadows, 368 morgs of pasture, 349 morgs of forest, 45 morgs of barren land, which totals 1904 morgs. There were 16 brick buildings, and 6 wooden buildings.
    The Szwinki folwark: 288 morgs of arable farm and garden land, 16 morgs of meadows, 4 morgs of pasture, 45 morgs of barren land, which totals 320 morgs. There were 7 brick buildings, 5 wooden buildings, and a windmill.
    The village of Łowiczek has 77 settlements on 194 morgs of cultivated land. The village of Szwinki (also called Sinki) has 22 settlements on 323 morgs of cultivated land. The village of Kamieniec has 20 settlements on 617 morgs of cultivated land. The village of Józefowo has 31 settlements on 126 morgs of cultivated land. The colony of Kańsko has 7 settlements on 144 morgs of cultivated land. The colony of Tomaszewo has 7 settlements on 112 morgs of cultivated land.
    Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009.

    A village in Jaslo county, lies in a wooded area covered with hummocks, on the stream Lubla, which empties into the Wislok; the village is on the highway from Kolaczyce to Frysztak. Buildings stand on both banks of the river, the church on the right and the cemetery on the left. A road leads from the village to Jaslo. On the north and south woods obstruct the view. L. has 1,645 inhabitants, of whom 47 have steady employment on the grounds of the major estate; they are Roman Catholics, except for 20 Jews. There is a Roman Catholic parish here, a public school, and a district loan society with a capital of 597 zl. in Austrian currency. At one time Lubla belonged to the Krakow diocese and was the property of the Koprzywnica abbey. In the parish records there is a copy of the church’s founding on 3 July 1314 by Wieslaw Bonar, the owner of the village; but this document is probably forged, because in lists of churches from 1326 and 1328 this one is not mentioned. [Historian Jan] Dlugosz mentions (in“Liber beneficiorum,” II, 278) only the name of the village “Lublya.” Also speaking against the genuineness of this document is the fact that Wieslaw (Vislavs) Bonar signs it in his own hand, instead of affixing his seal, contrary to the usual custom of the time. It would seem the church existing today was funded by the Pokrzywnica abbots. In 1669 (up to 1818) Przemysl bishop Andrzej Trzebicki combined the parishes in Lubla and Sieklo wka. The parish belongs to the diocese of Przemysl, Frysztak deanery. The major estate, owned by Ludwik Dzianott, covers an area of 365 morgs of farmland and 231 of woods; the minor estate has 1,433 of farmland, 191 of meadows and gardens, 218 of pastures, and 165 of woods. Lubla is bordered on the south by Sieklo wka, on the east by Widacz, on the north by Glinnik Sredni, and on the south by Niepla and Biro wka.
    Submitted by: This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the November 1997 issue of “Polish Footprints,” the publication of the Polish Genealogical Society of Texas, and appears here with express permission of the PGS-TX. (Nov 1997)

    Lubostron is a Dominion or large Manorial Farm located in the powiat of Szubin overlooking the Notec. Located there are 3696 morgs of tillable fields and gardens and 19 homes/farmsteads. In the year 1880 there were about 330 inhabitants, whereas in the year 1871 there were 352 inhabitants: 12 Protestant, 340 Catholic, of these 133 were illiterate. There is a Post Office and Telegraph at Labiszynie about 4 km away and a railroad station at Chmiel about 15 km away.
    Lubostron has a beautiful Palace built by the grandparents of the current owner hr. (Countess) Leona Skorzewski, according to the plans and drawings of the architect Zawadski. About the year 1880 Lubostron dropped the reference to Pilatowo and only Count Fredrick Skorzewski, inspiring palace, would be known as Lubostron. (See Labiszynie for further detail.) Near Lubostron, a large pagan tomb was discovered and opened. Inside was a circular covering plate of stone. From this tomb were extracted 17 burial urns.
    Translated by Jim Piechorowski, July 2005

#1 – A large forest grove, and a public house (inn), and a manor house Okrzesińce, in the county of Rohatyn.
#2 – A hamlet located in the town of Wiszniów, County of Rohatyn.
Note: Łukowiec, now in the Ukraine, is known as Lukovec-Vysnivs’ky.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA

    In 1536 Ludcza, a village in Rzeszów county. According to Dlugosz the village had a parish church, Birth of Our Lady. The lord was Czepielowski of Gryf arms. The village of Zakobyle, in which the Gryfits had their seat, belonged to the parish (Liber beneficiorum, II, 259). One part of Lutcza took the name Domaradz from a certain Domarat. In 1536 Stanislaw Domaradzki and Bernard Czepielowski owned the estate in Lutcza. In 1536 Zakobyle bore the name Domaradz Dolny (inferior) [“Lower Damaradz”—the Latin inferior is not a reflection on the village’s quality, but the Latin equivalent of dolny, “lower”]; it was the seat of Stanislaw Domaradzki. The village was appraised at 800 grzywnas [an ancient coin], whereas Lutcza was only 600 grzywnas.
    Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Summer 2004 Rodziny.

    Łysaków lies in the county (powiat) of Mielec, and lies between the Brnika stream and the river Breń. One of its features was a customs house located on the nearby Wisła river. To the south are found extensive forests. On the north stands a folwark and its buildings, the property of the lord of the manor. Originally it was the property of the Łysakowski family, whose coat of arms was “Leluwa.” It later was acquired by Count Tarnowski, and in 1892 became the property of Count Arthur Potocki. The population totaled 573 people, of whom 514 were Catholic and members of the church in Czermin. The primary farmstead covered 356 morgen of farmland, 14 morgen of gardens and meadows, 20 morgen of pastures, and 236 morgen of forests. The lesser farmstead had 551 morgen of farmland, 86 morgen of meadows and gardens, 282 morgen of pastures. On the east, Łysakow borders Borowa and Czermin; on its west lies Wola Otałęska, on the south Szafrany, and to the north Łysakówka.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen Bienick of the PGS-CA