Słownik Geograficzny Towns and Villages (P)

    A village in Rzeszow county, that lies over the old river-bed of the Wislok River, on the North from the railway road (of archduke Karol Ludwik) in Strazow, it lies a distance of 12 kilometers to North-East from Rzeszow; the Roman-Catholic parish is in Laka. This small settlement is located down on the fertile plain, on the right bank of the Wislok River. There are 157 houses and 802 inhabitants (377 men, 425 women); 790 Roman-Catholics, and 12 Jewish. The major land is with the Gawin manor which lies on the East border of village and includes 6 houses with 84 inhabitants; 69 Roman-Catholics, and 15 Jewish. There is a small forest on the North (11 morgi) with forester’s lodge. The major land, Lord Potocki`s property, includes 213 morgi of farm land, 61 morgi of meadows, 8 morgi of pasture and 11 of forest; minor land covers 663 morgi of farm land, 97 morgi of meadows, 97 morgi of pasture. There is a communal loan-society with capital stock of 996 zlotys. Palikowka borders with Laka on the West, with Lukowiec on the North , with Strazow and Krzemienica on the South, and with Wola Blizsza and Mala on the East.

    Panigródz, in 16th-century documents Panigrocz, a village in Wagrowiec county, 7 km. southwest of Kcynia and the same distance northeast of Golancz; there is a parish in the village, the post office is in Kcynia, the railway station is 18 km. away in Osiek; there are 45 houses, 563 residents (546 Catholic and 17 Protestant). The major estate (of Maks Bertram) covers 180 hectares, with net income from the land of 2,148 marks; the presbytery covers 154 hectares, with a land income of 168 marks. Whether Zbilut, the Kujavian voivode (circa 1018) came from Panigro dz has not been sufficiently proved.  In 1153 another Zbilut, founding a monastery in Lekno, endowed it with the village of Panigrodz.  His descendants signed their names as “z Panigrodza” (see Paprocki’s Armorial).  In 1233 Wladyslaw Odonicz conferred German law on the village; in 1248 Boguchwal and his brothers claimed rights to Panigro dz.  In 1283 Przemyslaw II conferred the right to free fairs and renewed permission for its settling on the basis of German law.  Panigrodz was the property of the Lekno (Wagrowiec) monks up to recent times.  In Great Poland legal documents various confirmations of this ownership can be found.  The local church, under the patronage of St. John the Baptist, was a parish church before 1523.  A new church was erected on the site of the old one in 1765 by Wojciech Kraszewski, the village landlord, but it burned down in 1808; the present church, made of fired brick, was standing by 1830.
    Panigródz parish, in Lekno deanery [Ed. Note-it was in Lekno deanery when this was written, but now it’s in Kcynia deanery], consists of: Chawlodno, Kernerowo (Koernershe), Legniszewo, Panigro dz, Rozpetek, Stolezyn, Szubianki and Wilkonice.   In 1873 the parish included 1,260 souls.  Near Panigrodz are the so-called “Swedish trenches”; an iron arrow was found here, 45 cm. long, 6.5 cm. long in the middle, somewhat bent at the tip. In ancient times various urns with bronze objects were supposedly dug up.
    Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Summer 1996. (Nov 1998).

    Current administrative location: Parchanie, Gmina Dąbrowa Biskupia, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Parchanie, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.
    Also known as Parkanie. It is a parish owned village, rural district, settlement, estate, and urban district located in powiat Inowrocław. Parchanie is about 9 kilometers from Inowrocław. The post office and parish are located in Parchanie. The railway station is located in Inowrocław.
    The church in Parchanie was in existence before 1055. There are two late Bishops of Kujawy buried in Parchanie: Jęndrzej and Wenancjusz. In 1239, the Bishops established the Parchanie estate and in 1259, half of the mill was constructed. Documents dated June 19, 1259 list Parchanie among the villages owned by Pope Aleksandr IV. In 1372, Bishop Zbilut issued the construction of a windmill in Parchanie. In 1583, the Parchanie Parish consisted of: Baciszewko and Baciszewo (today called Balczewo), Gąski, Łagiewniki, Modliborzyce, Niemojewo, Olszewice, Parchanie, Słonsko, Szpital, and Szrubsko. Parchanie was owned by the Bishops of Włocławek and then by klucza (warden?) Łask.

Currently, the rural village of Parchanie has 22 houses with 240 inhabitants.The Parchanie settlement has 4 houses with 26 inhabitants. Both villages that create the rural district combine to total 26 houses with 266 inhabitants (13 Protestants and 253 Catholics).
    The Parchanie estate has 7 houses with 127 inhabitants. The urban village of Parchanie has 48 houses with 355 inhabitants.The Parchanie urban district has 55 houses with 462 inhabitants (71 Protestants and 391 Catholics).
    The district of Parchanie has an area of land equal to 305.88 hectare (255.32 hectare of farmland, 35.75 hectare of meadows, 10.21 hectare of pasture, and 4.60 hectare of reed). Parchanie specializes in cattle and sheep breeding. The Parchanie Parish belongs to the Gniewkowo deanery. In 1873, there was 1175 souls belonging to the parish.
    Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009.

    Pawłów, a village in the county of Dąbrowa Tarnowska, is situated on the Wisła River (Vistula), in a zone which was the locale of a customs house. It is 175 meters above sea level. The Roman Catholic Church and parish were in Bolesław, about 0.4 kilometers to the south. In the late 1800s, there were 53 houses with 262 inhabitants, of whom 133 were men and 129 were women. There were 254 Catholics and 8 Jews. The local estate and manor covered 93 morgen of farmland, and 19 morgen of forests. The village measured 153 morgen of farms, 14 morgen of meadows, and 15 morgen of pastures. The southern section of Pawłów was known as Gącz. Pawłów borders Kanna on the west, Bolesław on the south, Tonia on the east, and Strojców and the Wisła River on the north.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen C. Bienick of the PGS-CA

    1) also called Pelplin, in documents Marienberg, Mons sanctae Mariae, Neu-Doberan, Novum Dubran, Polplin, Polpnin, Poplin, Samboria, Sambursh, Peplyn, Poelplinum, formerly a village, since 1886 a marketplace in Starogard powiat. [Translator’s Note: The official name today is Pelplin], At one time famed for its Cistercian monastery, today it is the seat of the Chelmno bishopric. It lies in a picturesque region on the Wierzyca river, in a valley between hills; it has a station for the eastern railway between Bydgoszcz and Tczew (20 km. away), and a 2nd-class post office. It is connected with Walichnowy on the Wisla river [Vistula] by telephone [sic]. Highways branch out from there to Starogard, to Tczew and the Peplin forestry inspectorate, and to Morzeszczyn. Besides the bishop there is a chapter there consisting of 10 canons. There is a seminary with four courses, which is closed at present; an episcopal secondary school with 12 teachers (10 clergymen and 2 lay) and about 230 pupils; a convent; elementary school; pharmacy, two doctors; sugar-mill; a water-mill belonging to the chapter; and a Polish bookshop and printing establishment, which publish Pielgrzym and a Sunday supplement, Krzyz.
    In 1868 Peplin had 1,684 Catholics (mainly Poles), 134 Protestants, 9 Jews, 104 houses; in 1879 it had 118 houses, 352 hearths, and 1,904 inhabitants. In 1885 there were 2,117 inhabitants. Included in the village are Polko, the seminary farmstead, and Maciejewo, owned by the chapter; this whole area covers 4,210.16 morgs. The nearest Protestant church is in Rudno. During the 1885-1886 campaign the local sugar-mill processed 422,620 quintals of sugar-beets, which are cultivated on an area of 2,850 Prussian morgs; the net profit came to 100,204 Marks, 82 Pfennigs.
    The local populace calls the settlement Peplin, or often Paplin, but never Pelplin. Thus Ketrzynski states correctly in Nazwy miejscowe (page 13) that the name Pelplin is German, and Peplin is Polish. It appears in the latter form in all Polish sources from the 16th and 17th centuries; and Bishop Rozdrazewski of Kujawy, who stayed at the monastery in 1583, wrote letters with a letterhead saying Peplinii. In his inspection report from that year we see Peplin (page 54). In any case, in Chojnice powiat and in East Prussia there are localities called Peplin; additionally, in vicinities on the upper Wierzyca and Czarna Woda the surname Peplinski is often encountered. The spelling in the documents is not consistent. In the 13th century it was written as Polplyn and Polplin, in the 14th and 15th centuries Polpelyn and Poelplyn; later German documents often have Poelplin. Borck (Echo sepulchralis, Vol. II, page 370) derives this name from papla, a local term for the poplar. In Pomerania plo means “swamp.” The Pomeranians liked to found villages in inaccessible places, especially marshy ones.
    Peplin is one of the oldest settlements in Pomerania. In Swiecki’s Starozytna Polska we read that Matawa near Nowe was formerly called “Pepla” (page 318). This village, in Tyrnawa district, existed before the founding of the monastery and belonged originally to count Waysil or Wojslaw, who had a rich estate in the vicinity of Tczew; from 1273 to 1276 he was governor of Swiecie, then of Tczew, and finally of Gdansk. When Pogodki-to which the Cistercians came from Doberan in Mecklenburg at the summons of Duke Sambor of Pomerania in 1258-turned out to be inopportune, Wojslaw ceded Peplin to Duke Mestwin II of Pomerania, as was customary at the time requesting that he give the village to the monks. This was done, and the duke issued a separate document to this effect in Swiecie on 2 January 1274 (see P. U. B. v. Perlbach, page 211, and Rev. Kujota’s Opactwo peplinskie, page 56).
    But it was not until 1276, on the feast of St. Simon and Jude, 28 October, that the monks moved to their new location, under the leadership of Werner, their third abbot in Pogodki and their first in Peplin. Even after that the generous Mestwin added new donations, and Przemyslaw, Wladyslaw Lokietek, and the Pomeranian nobility followed his example. The monastery acquired other properties by purchase. Before the abolition of clergy-owned property, the following villages and estates belonged to the monastery:
    a) The Peplin estate in Starogard powiat, to wit, the villages of. Nowacerkiew, Rzezecin, Morzeszczyn, Kulice, Krolowlas, Gentomie, Rozental and Ropuchy.
    b) the Pogodki estate in Koscierzyna powiat, to wit: Kleszczewo, Jezierze, Waldowo and Waldowko, Wieckowy, Glodowo, Jaroszewy, Kobylow, Junkrowy, Kozmin, Kowalikowo, Czernichowo, and the wastelands of Malarki or Malar, Brzeczek, Ryle and Deka.
    c) Farming settlements on the Vistula: Spegawy and Dobkowo, Narkowy, Wielkie Slonce, Hoppenbruch or Chmielniki, formerly Gorka.
    d) Estates or manorial farmsteads in Peplin estate belonging to the monastery: Borkowo, Bielawki, Smolag Klasztorny, Rombarg, Wolsze, Peplin, Wola, Nowydwor; as well as, in the Pogodki estate: Pogodki; Maly Garc, Czatkowy, Speiswinkel, Pomyje, Kaldeling; several properties in the Gdansk area; several mills, to wit, in Peplin, in Krolowlas, in Borkowo and in Pogodki; and finally many lakes, such as: the eastern part of Lake Wdzidzkie, Bobanczyn, Sitno, Sobacz, Slonce, the lake in Getomie, lake Lag, Dubelno, Krag, Rokitowe, and several ponds.
Thus the Peplin monastery was a sort of independent principality. The ducal judiciary ceased to operate here from the time of Mestwin’s donation; he even relinquished the collection of taxes and tributes in 1274, keeping for himself only labor service, which was limited to building and strengthening defensive citadels.
    In 1309 began the rule of the Teutonic Knights, which was a time of adversity for the monastery. Under various pretexts they restricted the monks’ grants and turned a blind eye to those who looted and attacked the monastery’s estates, to the extent that in 1320 Pope John XXII had to come to the monks’ defense in response to their complaints. An even greater nuisance to the monastery were Hussite soldiers in 1433. They seized anything of value that they found, and after destroying their reserves they burned down some of the monastery buildings. They stayed there over five weeks. The beautiful monastery church served as their stable (Dlugosz, Book XI, page 504).
    The monastery was also looted several times during the Thirteen Years’ War (1454-1466). Not until the government by Polish kings, beginning in 1466, was peace restored for Peplin and the whole region of Prussia. The monastery’s death register mentions Kazimierz Jagiellonczyk among its benefactors, with a contribution of a thousand grzywnas. Aleksander, who was in Gdansk in 1504, confirmed all the monastery’s grants and privileges. Zygmunt I did the same.
    During the first war with Sweden, Peplin again experienced misfortunes… [Omitted: a long section about King Gustav’s visit to the monastery in 1626]. During the second war with Sweden (1655-1660) Peplin again suffered greatly. The Swedes came there in 1655, but the monastery bought them off with a ransom of 9,000 zl. They returned the next year on January 3rd and imposed a new charge of 9,000 zl. on the monastery. When the attacks did not cease, the monks fled to Gdansk. At this time news of Stefan Czarniecki’s successes was spreading. In October 1656 a Polish unit under Jakub Wejher, and Karol Grudzienski was near Peplin. In 1657 skirmishes broke out near Peplin, which forced the monks to stay on in Gdansk and to pawn almost all the church’s furniture for 9,000 zl. to cover expenditures. Despite this, toward the end of 1659 the Swedes gave the Peplin abbot, then staying in Starogard, a demand to pay a “pillage tax” (Brandschoss). When the abbot delayed paying, due to lack of money, they burned the Peplin manorial farmstead. In mid-March the king’s son-Adolf went around to Rudno, Lignowy, and Garc, and from there came to Peplin, where he tore from the inhabitants almost all that was left of their property. During this time the monastery suffered more than at any other, for pillagers forced all the doors open and smashed the furnaces. Not until the Treaty of Oliwa did peace return. [Omitted: a long section on the visit of Queen Eleanora in 1675 and of Jan Sobieski in 1677.]
    In 1772 the whole property of the monastery came under government administration. In 1810, on the 80th [sic] of October, King Friedrich Wilhelm III issued an order to seize monastery properties to pay for the French contribution. Finally the monastery was abolished by a decree dated 14 March 1823. There were at that time 16 monks; formerly there had been about 50. Since the monks first came there from Pogodki, 565 years had passed.
    By virtue of the bull De salute animarum, dated 16 June 1821, Peplin became the seat of the Chelmno bishopric, and the monastery became the cathedral church. The first Chelmno bishop to have his residence in Peplin was Ignacy Batthy, 1824-1832; the second was Anastazy Sedlag, 18341856; the third Jan Nepomucen Marwicz, 1857-1886; and the fourth Leon Redner. [Omitted: a list of the 42 abbots who ran the monastery from 1276-1814, and an exceedingly detailed description of the church].
    The library contains beautiful manuscripts from the 12th and 13th centuries with ornamental initial letters. A great many original copies of charters and grants have also been preserved. Since 1674 a tower with a tin roof has arisen over the library, designed just for the clock.
    North of the cathedral stands the small parish church, all of brick; it has been in existence since 1417. The Cistercians built it for the use of the faithful of Peplin and the surrounding villages. At first the church depended on the monastery. In the 17th century it was generally administered by the pastors of nearby churches. Later priests stayed there who had been appointed by the monastery as its patron and served as administrators. Today the administrator is always one of the Tum vicars. The bishop is entitled to the patronage. At this church, called Corpus Christi, exists a Confraternity of Guardian Angels and of Sobriety. Belonging to the parish are: Peplin, Maciejewo, Polko, and Wola. In 1867 there were 1,654 souls; in 1885 there were 1,968. The main gateway still exists, and has been remodeled today for the choir director. The monastery brewery was not dismantled until 1842. At the west end of the village stands the new Sisters of Mercy convent, built in 1862 due to the efforts of suffragan Rev. Jeschke. The Chapel of St. Joseph, adjoining the convent, was consecrated in 1870. The image on the left side of the altar was a gift from Queen Augusta.
    Sources: 1) Opactwo pelplinskie, by Rev. Kujota, Pelplin, 1875. 2) Szkice z ziemi i historii Prus Krolewskich, by Lubinski, Gdansk, 1886. 3) Klasztory zenskie, by Rev. Fankidejski, Peplin, 1883. 4) Z Prus Krolewskich, by St. Tarnowski. 5) Borck, Echo sepulchralis, pages 370-414. 6) Die Bau-und Kunstdenkm¹ler des Kreises Stargard, 1885; an illustrated work with a number of drawings representing the most valuable relics of the church.

    2) Peplin, a treasury-owned forestry inspectorate, 2.5 km. west of the village of the same name, situated on a hill over the highway from Tczew to Starogard, in Starogard powiat, served by the post office in Peplin, the Catholic parish there, and the Protestant church in Rudno. The inspectorate consists of the following forestries: Bielawkerweide (German), Borkowo, Brody, Kochankenberg, Sturmberg, and Samlin. The whole area covers 3,203.87 hectares: 113.29 of farmland and gardens, 58.7 of meadows, 2,925.09 of coniferous and foliaceous forests, 101.7 unused, 5.07 of waters; net income from the land comes to 8,225 marks.

    3) Peplin, a Chelmno estate, Chojnice county, served by the post office and Catholic parish in Lesno, about 10 km. away, and the Protestant church in Suminy in BytÑw county, with a school in Wyndorp, 3,449.72 mÑrgs of area. In 1868 there were 15 buildings, 5 houses, 59 Catholic inhabitants. Lipinski was the owner in 1856. Peplin lies in the northeastern part of the county, on Lake Peplinskie, and as empty land formerly belonged to the Tuchola starosta’s office. In 1693 Wojciech Peplinski complained to the Tuchola leaseholder, Erazm Janowski, that the people of Ledy and Skoszewo were driving cattle into his bypass, although the castle office forbade that so that his fields would not be plowed up. The office allowed him to hunt at Miectok and fish in the river; the meadow by the forest is his (see the Notes of Rev. Kujota in Peplin).
    Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Summer 1999 Bulletin.

    A church, estate, and estate district in Inowrocław county, about 8 kilometers east of Kruszwica, near the border of the Kingdom of Poland. There is a parish on site; the post office is in Kruszwica, and the railroad station is in Jarosław, 18 kilometers away. There are 10 houses, 133 inhabitants, and an area of 503.24 hectares; net income of 3,900 marks; Swiss cattle are raised there; the owner is Czesław Jaczyński. By around 1383 Piaski belonged already to the Kruszwica chapter; it was looted during the domestic disorders by the followers of Domarat, castellan of Poznań. Circa 1560, the following owned property there: Felix Wolski, 3 łan’s* and 2 zagrodnicy [peasant farmers working garden-sized plots of land]; Wojciech Szuba, 1 łan and 2 zagrodnicy; Wacław Sowa, 1 łan and 2 zagrodnicy; Jędrzej Rychalski and Maciej Strzezik, 1 łan each. The parish at that time was composed of: Bacharcie, Piaski, Piecki Małe and Piecki Wielkie, Skotniki Zabłotne, Tarnówko, and Wola Wapowska. Two flint hatchets were discovered there. The Marcinki manorial farmstead was included in the estate district. The whole district had 11 houses and 145 Catholic inhabitants.
    Translated by Allen & Marie Grasser, edited by William F. Hoffman

    Current administrative location: Pieczyska, Gmina Dąbrowa Biskupia, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland. Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Pieczyska, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.
    1) Mistakenly called Pieczysk. It is an estate located in powiat Inowrocław. Pieczyska is about 11 kilometers northeast of Kruszwica. Pieczyska belongs to the Pieranie Parish. The post office is located in Parchanie. The railway station is located 13 kilometers away in Inowrocław. The Pieczyska estate has 2 houses with 57 inhabitants, all of them Catholic. The estate of Pieczyska has an area of land equal to 552.41 hectare (281.51 hectare of farmland, 45.50 hectare of meadows, 15.22 hectare of pasture, 187.69 hectare of forests, 22.26 hectare of unused barren land, and 0.23 hectare of water). The income generated from the land is equal to 2716 marks. The estate specializes in sheep breeding. The estate is owned by Józef Mański.
    Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009.

    Current administrative location: Pieranie, Gmina Dąbrowa Biskupia, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland. Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Freitagsheim, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.
    German name: Freitagsheim. It is the local parish church and an estate located in powiat Inowrocław. Pieranie is about 13 kilometers northeast of Kruszwica. Pieranie is located near the border of the Kingdom of Poland. The Pieranie Parish church is located within the Pieranie estate. The post office is located in Parchanie. The railway station is located in Inowrocław, which is about 15 kilometers away. Together with the parish, there are 9 houses with 151 inhabitants (5 Protestants and 146 Catholics).
    The Pieranie estate has an area of land equal to 575.97 hectare (406.80 hectare of farmland, 54.22 hectare of meadows, 83.25 hectare of pasture, 27.44 hectare of unused barren land, and 4.26 hectare of water). The income generated from the land is equal to 2460 marks.
    In 1301, Mikołaj Widowicz, Pastor of Płock, gave the Pieranie Parish church to the Włocławek diocese. In 1583, the estate was held by Sebastyan Osiecki. The Pieranie Parish consists of: Bąkowo, Baśkowo, Dziewa, Głojkowo, Pieranie, and Sobiesiernie. In 1595, for a time, the local church was in the hands of the protestants and the minister was Jan Pigeliusz. Currently, the Pieranie Parish belongs to the Gniewkowo deanery. In 1873, there were 935 souls belonging to the parish.
    Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009.

    Now Pilviskiai, Lithuania, a municipal settlement, before 1867 a small town, on the river Szeszupa [Sesupe] by the mouths of the rivers Pilwa [Pilve] and Wysoka [Visakis], in Maryampol [Marijampole] county, Pilwiszki gmina and parish. This settlement has a scenic location on an elevated bank of the river. It is 27 km. from Maryampol and 15 km. from Wylkowyszki [Viikaviskis]. It has a wooden parish church, the gmina office, an elementary school, a pharmacy, and a railroad station of the Warsaw St. Petersburg line on the branch running from Kowno [Kaunas] to Ejtkuny [Chernyshevskoye}, Kaliningrad oblast, Russia], 31 km. from Wierzbolowo [Virbalis], and 93 km. from Koszedary [Kaisiadorys]. The settlement has 157 houses and 2,291 inhabitants. In 1827 there were 81 houses there, with 888 inhabitants; in 1862 there were 226 houses with 1,889 inhabitants.
    Pilwiszki arose on the grounds of extensive forests that comprised royal estates. Originally a village, in 1536 it received a town charter. The absence of favorable conditions limited the town’s development, and it took on the character of a village; it was not until 1792 that a new charter issued by Stanislaw August restored its status as a town and returned privileges to its populace that the abuses of starostas had usurped. In 1709 the starosta of Pilwiszki, Stefan Chrapowicki, founded a church and parish here. Pilwiszki is known for its cattle and horse fairs. Currently 6 fairs are held there each year. The parish of Pilwiszki, in the deanery of Maryampol (formerly Sapiezyszki [Zapyskis]) has 7,003 souls.
    The gmina of Pilwiszki belongs to gmina court district No. 2 in Dbowa Buda [Azuolt Buda], and is served by the post office in Maryampol. The gmina includes these localities: Antonowo [AntanavasJ, Arzolupie [Arzuolupiai], Audeiszki [AudiejiskeJ, Auksztyszki [? Aukstiske], Bartniki [Bartninkai], Biersztupie [Berstupis], Bierznowienie-Czepajcia [? Berznaviene-Cepaicaiai], Bierznowienie-Dabrowskich, Bogata [Bagatoji], Budwiecie Budvietis], Garbiszki [? Gabriske], Gieruliszki [Geruliske], Izdogi [? Isdagai] Male, Izdogi Nadwysokie, Jozuniszki [Juozuniske] Poparafialne, Jozuniszki Rzadowe, Jurksze [Jurksai], Kaiwa [Kalva], Karkliniszki [? Karkliniskes], Kiermusze [? Kermuse], Kirsnokiszki [Kirsnokiske], Krawniszki [? Kriauniske], Kuczyszki [Kuciske], Linksmokalnie [Linksmakalnis], Mejsztyszki [Meistiske], Pilwiszki, Pinczyszki [? Pinciskiai], Poprudzie [Paprudziai], Potaszniki, Skindeliszki [Skindeliske], Stejniszki [Stainiske], Stepkiszki [Stepkiske], Szatmusie [? Sakmusis], Szaudynie [? Siaudyniai], Szaudadusze [Siadaduse], Szlurpkiszki Sliurpkiske], Tymienszczyki [Timinciske], Ubognowina, Uszpilnie [? Uzpilviai], Uszprudzie [? Uzprudziai], Warakiszki [Varakiske], Wojty [Vaitai], and Wysokiszki [? Visakiskiai].
    Pilwiszki forest district has 47,601 morgs of land and is divided into sections called Wilemska, Sparwinie, Girniki [? Girnikai], and Klampupie [? Klampupiai]. In 1861 a marksman’s school for the gubernia of Augustow was held in this forest district. In 1828 amber was discovered here; the treasury received a total of 1,093 silver rubles for the right to mine it.
    Pilwiszki starostwo, not affiliated with a grod, was in Troki [TrakaiJ province, Kowno county. According to 1866 treasurers’ lists it consisted of the town of Pilwiszki and the Giwaltowo [? GavaltuvaJ estate with appurtenances, owned by Chrapowicki, Orsza marshal, who paid a kwarta of 3,084 zlp. and 4 gr., and a hyberna of 1,246 zlp. The Sejm of 1773 1775 bestowed emphyteutic ownership of this starostwo on Jacek Paszkowki, master of the equerry for the province of Brzesc Litewski, and he paid a kwarta of 3,533 zl.
    Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Winter 2004 Rodziny.

    A village and manorial farmstead on a lake in Kolo county, Piotrkowice gmina*, Wqsosze parish, 30 versts [about 32 km.] from Kolo. It has a general elementary school, a brickyard, and an oil mill. The village has 9 houses and 228 inhabitants; the manorial farmstead has 4 houses and 107 inhabitants.
    In 1886 the estate of Piotrkowice (formerly 1esin) consisted of. the manorial farmsteads of Piotrkowice and Rozopole, the settlement of Slesin, and the villages of Piotrkowice, Wygoda, Kolebki, Polwiosk Stary, Polwiosk Nowy, and Niedzwiady. The manorial grounds covered 1,082 mórgs. The manorial farmstead of Piotrkowice had 742 mórgs of farmland and gardens, 19 of meadows, 9 of pastureland, 18 of forests, 18 unused, for a total of 806; there were 12 buildings of stone and 12 of wood, and 6-and 13 field crop rotation. The manorial farmstead of Rozopol had 240 mórgs of farmland and gardens, 3 of meadows, 21 of forests, and 12 unused, for a total of 276; there were 2 buildings of stone and 4 of wood; there was 10 field crop rotation, and a windmill The settlement of Slesin had 116 settlements with 871 mórgs; the village of Piotrkowice had 19 settlements with 52 mórgs; the village of Wygoda had 31 settlements, with 187 mórgs; the village of Kolebki had 32 settlements and 261 m6rgs; the village of Polwiosk Stary had 37 settlements with 328 mórgs; the village of Polwiosk Nowy had 32 settlements with 148 mórgs; the village of Niedzwiady had 42 settlements with 497 mórgs. According to the Lib. ben. Lask (II, 212 and 228), a dziesiccina from the Piotrkowice manorial farmstead’s lans and from certain lans belonging to the peasants was given to the pastor of the parish church in Wasosze, and the pastor in Sompolno took others of the peasants’ Lana According to the Konin county tax register for 1879 the village of Piotrkowice, in the parish of Wassosze [sic], belonged to Stanislaw Zagorski, and it had 2 lans and 2 zagrody without land (Pawinski, Wielkopoiska, Vol. I, p.241).
    Piotrkowice gmina belongs to the district IV gmina court in Sompolno; the post office is in Sompolno as well. The grnina has 9,195 mórgs of land and 2,743 inhabitants (as of 1867).
    Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Fall 2003 Rodziny.

    Formerly known as Stankowice. A dominium located in powiat Inowrocław. It is located about 8 kilometers southwest from Inowrocław. Piotrkowice belongs to the Ludzisko Parish. The post office is located in Mątwy. The railway station is located about 6 kilometers away in Janikowo. Piotrkowice has 10 houses with 158 inhabitants (all Catholics).
    The Piotrkowice dominium has an area of land equal to 501.35 hectare (304.67 hectare of farmland, 148.99 hectare of meadows, 3.77 hectare of forest, 6.52 hectare of unused barren land, and 37.40 hectare of water). The income generated from the land is equal to 9454 marks. Piotrkowice has a peat bog, dairy farm, and a cattle breeder.
    The property belonged to Walery Rutkowski until he sold his inheritance to the Germans. Piotrkowice was known and established by 1450 (Ryszczew. Kod. Dypl., II, 895). In 1580, the owner was Jan Wleniecki.
    Translated by Al Wierzba, December 2009.

    Current administrative location: Pławin, Gmina Inowrocław, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland. Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Plawin, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.
    A dominium located in powiat Inowrocław. It is located about 5 kilometers southeast of Pakość. Pławin belongs to the Kościelec Parish. The post office is located in Jaksice. There are railway stations located about 7 kilometers away in both Inowrocław and Złotniki. Pławin has 4 houses with 113 inhabitants (89 Catholics and 24 Protestants).
    The Pławin dominium has an area of land equal to 305.90 hectare (294.40 hectare of farmland, 8.60 hectare of meadows, and 2.90 hectare of unused barren land). The income generated from the land is equal to 5480 marks. Pławin specializes in sheep and cattle breeding, along with sugar beet farming.
    The owner is Edmund Mittelstaedt. In 1488, the Bishop of Włocławek, Piotr of Bnin, gave Pławin a seminary in exchange for a tithe (tenth of the dominium’s income). In 1583, Jan Pławinski sat at the head of the Pławin seminary. From documents dating from the 14 century, there possibly could have been a mill located in Pławin, see also the entry for the village of Pławanów (Ryszczew. Kod. Dypl. II, 157).
    Translated by Al Wierzba, August 2010.

    Current administrative location: Pławinek, Gmina Inowrocław, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland. Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Plawinek, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.
    A dominium located in powiat Inowrocław. It is located about 8 kilometers southeast of Inowrocław. Pławinek belongs to the Góra Parish. The post office and railway station are located in Inowrocław. Pławinek has 10 houses with 147 inhabitants (all Catholics).
    The Pławinek dominium has an area of land equal to 427.45 hectare (391.66 hectare of farmland, 14.30 hectare of meadows, 0.17 hectare of pastures, 5.75 hectare of forest, and 15.57 hectare of unused barren land). Pławinek specializes in Dutch cattle breeding. The owner is Kazimiera Łyskowska.
    Translated by Al Wierzba, December 2009.

    Płazów, in Russian called Płaziw, and once known as Błazów, was a small town located in the county of Cieszanów. It is 7.5 kilometers from the town of Narol, where the post office and telegraph stations were located. It is described in a literary work “Articles of Błazów” volume 1 page 246. Płazów lies in the basin of the Wisła (Vistula River). To the northeast runs a stream called Tanew, which flows from the southeast to the northwest. Two streams, called the Lubówka and Piszcak, flow into the Tanew from east to west. The houses are situated on the southwest area of these streams, and are built on an elevation of 265 meters above sea level. On the northeast of the town, rises a mountain called Przepaśniska, which rises 324 meters in height.
    In 1880, there were 170 houses with 689 inhabitants, of whom 194 were Roman Catholics, 455 were Greek Catholics, and 40 were Jews. The coat of arms for Płazów was a figure of St. Michael the Archangel on a field of white. King Zygmunt III Wasa (1566-1632) first heard from Jan Płaza of Mstyczów, who was a royal official in Kraków, that this area would be a suitable site for the founding of a town, since the royally-owned towns of Gorajec and Żuków were nearby, as well as the rivers called Lubella and Rozaniec. The privilege to build a town was granted on April 22, 1614, and it was specified that the town be called “Płazów”. (See the work, “Stara Polska” (Old Poland) volume 2, pages 1222 and 1223). The founding of Płazów was confirmed by four kings, namely, Władysław IV in 1634, Jan Kazimierz in 1665, Jan Sobieski in 1682, and King August in 1736. An illustrated writing in 1768, “RKP Ossolinski” page 95, shows the following excerpt which reads, “In this town stands a wooden parish church, whose pastor is the Reverend Kazimierz Sikorski”. In a decree issued in 1727, King August II set up a system of tithes for the villages of Krupiec, Brusno, Gorajec and Żuków, which outlined the donations of rye and other grains to be offered to the church pastor on Christmas day.
    In the decree of privileges and the right to found the town (with the name of Płazów), Ryszard Leves was appointed the “wojt” (sheriff) of the town. The local pastor was guaranteed an income, and the church was granted a parcel of land. The inhabitants were allowed to build homes on land granted to them, and other areas were set aside for them to engage in farming and pasturing cattle. The Jews were allowed to establish businesses, and arrangements were made to build protective walls around the town, for its protection. The inhabitants were given permission to import Hungarian, Italian and French wines. They could also brew beer, keep bees for the production of honey, and operate a distillery. The town was to be governed according to the Magdeburg system which originated and was prevalent in Germany. The sheriff and a council were elected by the people. The town’s official seal bore the image of St. Michael, and was ordered to be impressed on all documents.
    Market days were held twice weekly, on Wednesdays and Saturdays. Trade fairs were held on the Feast of the Conversion of St. Paul, and on the Feast Day of St. John. Buying and selling of cattle and other commodities were allowed. Traders came from as far as Kraków, Elbłag, Poznan and other outlying areas. The free trade was based on the systems used in Toruń, Lublin, and Sandomierz. This practice was sanctioned by the above-mentioned five kings.
A varied tax schedule came into existence on August 25, 1765, drawn up by the commissioner Kłębowski. Property owners paid 52 złoty and 22½ groszy. The magistrate tithed 100 złoty to the parish church, and 100 to the owner of the manor house. Wheelwrights paid 15 złoty, among other levies. It was illegal to cut down trees in the forest, and sow fields that were vacant, without permission. The net tax income for Płazów came from one brewery, two water mills, a handmill, and a tax on the meadows in Żuków and Czabaniec. Tolls were paid by coach drivers, glass makers, wagons transporting goods, the distillery, sale of salt, etc. Liquor could be sold only in casks for weddings, baptisms, funerals and festive events. Repairs of properties and the erection of new buildings was regulated. In 1764, the town of Płazów had an income of 1550 złoty and 27½ groszy (coins), while the expenses were only 148 złoty and 6 groszy.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen C. Bienick of the PGS-CA

    Plocicz, in the Kodeks Wielkopolski mentioned as Ploczyce, in 1357 Plocyce, 1597 Pletz, 1673 Plociez, German Ploetzig. a village in Zlotow powiat, served by the postal station and Catholic parish in Kamien, and by the Protestant congregation in Sep—lno; it has its own school. It covers an area of 8,047.81 Magdeburg-measure m—rgs. In 1868 there were 306 buildings, 125 houses, and 842 inhabitants, 673 of them Catholic, 169 Protestant. Plocicz lies on the highway leading from Chojnice to Naklo, about 4 km. south of Kamien. In 1597 a village Stare-Lolowo existed next to Plocicz. A green meadow near a forest separates both from Kamien. In 1859 a jug with silver coins, buckles, and earrings, as well as ingots and sheets of silver, dating from the 10th and 11th centuries, were found in Plocicz (see Der Kreis Flatow by Schmitt, p. 268, and Preuss. Prov., Bl. 1851, XI, p. 318). Plocicz was mentioned in a 1357 charter of King Kazimierz as belonging to the Gniezno archbishops (see Kodeks dyplomatyczny Wielkopolski, III, No. 1354). See also Kamien, Vol. 3, p. 739. – Rev. Frydrychowitcz
    Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Fall 1997Bulletin.

    A village and estate on the Narew river, powiat of Lomza, gmina and parish of Puchaly. In 1827 it had 32 houses and 288 inhabitants. In 1884 the manorial farmstead of Pniewo-A, including the villages of Pniewo, Budy Pniewskie, Rybno, and Gac, covered 3,090 morgs, of which farmland and gardens occupied 546, meadows 597, pastureland 121, forests 1,721, water 74, and 31 were unused. There were 4 buildings made of stone and 33 of wood; 7-field crop rotation was in use; the forest was not administered. The village of Pniewo had 28 settlements, with 452 morgs of land; the village Budy Pniewskie had 4 settlements and 39 morgs of land; the village Rybno-A had 9 settlements and 111 morgs of land; the village Gac had 2 settlements with 3 morgs of land.
    The manorial farmstead of Pniewo-B had 1,268 morgs: farmland and gardens 225, meadows 245, pastureland 33, forests 136, water 16, and 13 unused. It had 3 stone buildings, 7-field crop rotation, and the forest was unadministered. This manorial farmstead was split off from the estate of Puchaly.
    Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Fall 2000.

    A settlement in the parish and rural district of Kopciowo, Sejny county, located 15 versts from Sejny. One house and 8 residents.
    Translated by Dorothy Leivers, Hadlow, Kent, England

    Current administrative location: Podgaj, Gmina Aleksandrow–Kujawski, Powiat Aleksandrów, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland. Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Podgaj, Powiat Nieszawa, Gubernia Warszawske, Vistula Land, Russian Empire.
    1) A village located in powiat Nieszawa and gmina Służewo. The village of Podgaj belongs to the Służewo Parish. Podgaj has a population of 89 inhabitants and 18 morgs of peasant owned land.
    Translated by Al Wierzba, May 2010.

    A settlement in the parish and rural district of Kopciowo, Sejny County, locatred 20 versts from Sejny. 2 houses and 24 people. In the past it was part of the estate of Justyanowo.
    Translated by Dorothy Leivers, Hadlow, Kent, England (May 2004)

    A settlement in the parish and rural district of Kopciowo, Sejny county which is located 28 versts from the town of Sejny. There are 3 houses with 17 residents and 16 morgs of land. In the past it was part of the estate of Justyanowo.
    Translated by Dorothy Leivers, Hadlow, Kent, England (May 2004)

    A village in the parish of Lejpuny, rural district of Kopciowo, Sejny county. Located 33 versts from Sejny, the village has 16 houses with 169 residents. In 1827 there were 12 houses and 136 residents.
    Translated by Dorothy Leivers, Hadlow, Kent, England (May 2004)

    A peasant village the parish and rural district of Kopciowo, Sejny county. It is 24 versts from the town of Sejny. There are 19 houses and 215 residents and 845 morgs of land. Once part of the Justyanowo estate.
    Translated by Dorothy Leivers, Hadlow, Kent, England (May 2004)

    Located 26 versts from the town of Sejny. In 1827, there was one house with 9 people and it may have been part of the parish of Sereje. Now there are 2 houses and 13 people and it is in the parish and rural district of Kopciowo, Sejny county.
    Translated by Dorothy Leivers, Hadlow, Kent, England (May 2004)

    Podwołoczyska, a small hamlet in the county of Skałat, was situated on the border betwwen Galicia, and the province of Podolia. Its location is 185 kilometers from Lwów, (now Lviv, in Ukraine) and 532 kilometers from Krakow. It is bordered on the East by the river Zbrucz, and beyond it by Wofoczyska in Podolia province = on the south it borders Zdaniśzowka on the west Supranowka,and Stara, and to the north by a large pond.
    In 1857, P, was a tiny settlement in Staromiejszczyzna, which had a large farmstead. After the railroad from Tarnopol to Worczyska was built in the districts of Zadnieszowka and Staromiejszczyzna, a busy commercial and progressive town began to emerge, thanks to the freight being shipped between Russia and Galicia. (,1.B.Galicia was the name given by Austrians to the part of Poland, which they secured after the 3 partitions of Poland). The new village now lacked an administration, had no representation, and no authorities. Soon, a departmental council was formed, which petitioned and applied for city rights from the Emperor of Austria.
    In Article # 1, the emperor declared that Zagrobela would be separated from the district of Zdanieszowka, # 2, the area of P, would be separated from the noble estate in Staromiejszczyzna. These 2 areas would then be combined to form a district town bearing the name Podwołoczyska. The rail-road trading flourished for the importing of corn and grains from Imperial Russia] P, had a station on the Karl Ludwig railrad line and a second-class customs house, besides being the last town on the high road traveling from Rohatyn-Brzeźany-Tarnopol-Podwołoczyska. After the heavy trade in commodities and their exchange began to expand, buyers and sellers began to descend near the station. Soon, hotels were built to accomodate the business agents. Houses sprang up as if from nowhere, and in 1880 the population numbered 1874 inhabitants. The numbers were constantly changing depending on the influx of buyers and agents. Some of them were from Sweden, France, England, and Germany.
    The hotels were always full of guests, the telegraph station was very busy, and even the post men had difficulty handling and delivering the mail. The Jews were very active in this area, since they controlled many businesses on both sides of the Zbrucz-river. After another railroad line was built in Russia, the trade began to decline at the P, terminal. P, had a Roman Catholic parish, and in 18?9 there were 441 Catholics. A church was built in Toki, also a school with 2 teachers, In the late 1800’s the town of P, had 2 albumin factories.
    During the period of 1881-1885, the following businesses were in existence: 2 brick kilns, 2 shoemakers, 2 tailors, 4 surgeons, 5 bakers, 1 pharmacist, 2 midwives, 1 stonemason, 1 buyer of mixed goods, 43 buyers of grain, 7 buyers of lumber, 4 buyers of flour and groats, 1 tap room. owner, 2 cotton buyers, 1 storekeeper selling spices, 3 dealers in cloth, 9 buyers of wine, 6 speculators, 3 bankers, 10 trade agents, 25 for-warding agents, 8 innkeepers, 1 coffee house owner, 17 tavern keepers.
    In the very late 1800’s a new railroad line was constructed from P, to Toust. At one time the large farmstead and manor house was the property of the Rzyszczewski noble family, but in the late 1800’x, it belonged to the estates of Count Waclaw Baworowski. Pages 481, 482, and 483., are statistics, showing the amounts, weights, etc., which were traded through the P, railroad station, during the years of 1881-1885. The names of the products are underlined in red, and the English translation may be found on the left and right sides of the page.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen C. Bienick of the PGS-CA

    A settlement in the parish and rural district of Kopciowo, Sejny county. It is 35 versts from the town of Sejny. 2 houses, 13 inhabitants.
    Translated by Dorothy Leivers, Hadlow, Kent, England (May 2004)

    A village in the parish and rural district of Kopciowo. 21 versts from the town of Sejny. There are 7 houses and 75 people, and a land area of 507 morgs In earlier time it was part of the manorial farmstead of Holny Wolmera.
    Translated by Dorothy Leivers, Hadlow, Kent, England (May 2004)

    Połczyn 1). German Polzin, in a 1717 document Polczyno, a Chelmno village and estate, or a free solectwo in Kaszuby, Wejherowo county, with a post office; served by the Catholic and Evangelical Protestant parishes in Puck, 3.5 km. to the cast, railway station in Wejherowo, 12 kin. southwest, Catholic school in Polczyn. It contains 12 peasant properties and 8 zagrod as, covering an area of 115 wlokas and 28 morgs. In 1869 there were 470 inhabitants (403 Catholic, 67 Evangelical Protestant), 46 houses. The free solectwo by itself is 311.9 hectares, with net profit of 3,216 marks from the land; cattle are raised there. In 1858 it was owned by Hannemann. Polczyn lies on the Gdansk highway, 3.7 km. from the Bay of Puck; it has fertile soil.
    On March 1, 1378 Walpot von Bessenheim, the Teutonic Knights commander for the region of Gdansk, granted the village of “Poltzin” to Konrad Wysen on terms of Chelmno law*, with 59112wiokas and 4 morgs. Of these 6 belonged to the free solectwo, and the rest paid 1 grzywna and 2 hens each, with 2 days of compulsory labor service. The bishop and pastor were to collect the usual tithes. Around 1400 there were 521/2 settled wlokas, and there was a tavern in the village. The village provided 5 armed men (“Wepner”) for military expeditions. In 1656 King Kazimierz gave two serfs in Polczyn to the Puck townsman Tomasz Ranke for the rest of his life, as a reward for his loyal services. In 1657 when Polczyn, as a manorial farmstead, belonged to the castle of Puck, there were sown there 1 last and 24 bushels of rye, 31 bushels of barley, 3 lasts and 16 bushels of oats, and 21/2 bushels of peas. This farmstead produced 15 florins, 10 grosz, 5 achtels of butter, 14 hens, and 660 eggs. In 1650 the livestock inventory was as follows: 10 milk cows (at 13 florins), 13 other cows (at 15 florins), 7 two-year-olds, 3 one-year-olds, 1 stud, 3 swine, 9 hogs, 8 piglets, 8 geese, 15 hens, and 7 heifers (see Prutz, Geschichte des Kreises Neustadt, p. 238).
    A 1678 inspection report reads as follows:
“Village Polczyno and folwark. According to its charter it is supposed to have 581/2 wlokas and 4 morgs. Folwark: (a description of the buildings and gear follows, which we have omitted). The local official, a widower with a daughter and a son, also has a farmhand and a girl servant. The toll house and pension are as in the Pieleszewo folwark. Livestock and odds and ends: 16 cows, 1 stud, four 2-year old heifers, two 2-year-old bullocks, three year-old heifers, 1 bullock, 4 calves, 3 old swine, 1 stud, 2 hogs, 5 piglets, geese and hens as in all folwarks. First sowings: 1 last and 56 bushels of rye were sown for winter. The local official stated that the following amounts of vegetables can be sown: 50 bushels of barley, 2 lasts of oats, 6 bushels of peas. There is one orchard by the folwark and a second empty one, and when the crop is good, there is income for the castle from it.”
    The village settlement: soltys Piotr Parchem and his wife have four children, and live on 3 w1okas; per custom he sends horse and cart to the castle when they orderit, and supplies it with 5 bushels of oats. A second soltys, Szymon Lesnau and his wife, have two children and live on 3 w1okas. Like the first soltys, he provides cart and horses and oats. At one time there were 19 peasant properties in this village; now there are 13, and the 14th, vacant, is held by the leaseholder. Of these peasants, 8 do maintenance work on the road leading to the castle. The 9th belongs to His Excellency the dean of Puck per grant of privilege as seen below. The 10th and 11th are subject to Tomasz Ranken, mayor of Puck, by grant of privilege and ordinance as seen below. The 12th and 13th peasant properties belong to the patricians of Gdansk and are leased from them by various persons from time to time for up to a year.
    Pawel Hanman, a serf, has a wife and one child, lives on 11/2 wlokas, and does road maintenance work like the others; he pays a rent of 3 fl., 26 grosz, 2 szelags, and provides 10 bushels of oats, 6 hens, and 6 eggs. The widow of Jakub Busz, a serf, has an adult son, a bachelor, who runs her farm; he does road maintenance work like the others, and provides 11 bushels of oats and hens and eggs like the others. Jakub Bolda, a serf, has a wife and two children, does road maintenance work, pays rent, and provides oats, hens, and eggs like all the others. Jan Szauenberg, a serf, has a wife and one child; he does road maintenance work, pays rent, and provides oats, hens, and eggs like all the others. Jerzy Detlof, a serf, has a wife and two children, etc. Jan Kleba, a serf, has a wife and four children, etc. Tomasz Dytlof, a serf, has a wife and two children, etc. Michal Kornik, a serf, has a wife, one child, and does the same as the others, additionally providing 10 bushels of oats. Jerzy Top, a serf, has a wife and 8 children; this peasant is subject to the honest Swietosz Brychelka, a townsman of Puck, according to a contract with the patricians of Gdansk for up to a year, until the feast-day of St. Ursula, and at the same time paid the lords of Gdansk an advance tribute of 70 florins a year; in addition this peasant pays rent and provides the castle with oats, hens, and eggs like the others. Michal Halman, a serf, has a wife, and is subject to Lord Jan Ross [sic], mayor of Puck, according to a contract from the Lords of Gdansk, for up to a year, until the feast-day of St. Ursula. He also paid the lords of Gdansk in advance for annual road maintenance work; he pays rent and provides the castle with oats, hens, and eggs. Michal Parchem, a serf, has a wife and two children; he leases 1 1/2 wlokas, paying a rent of 30 florins, and helps with the harvest like the others. Jakub Bosch, a serf, has a wife and a dwelling and some land, for which he pays 12 florins. Andrys Buszch, son of Matys Buszch, a serf, has a wife and four children; he is subject to the dean of Puck, Rev. Jerzy Rydelius, by virtue of a cession by Her Excellency Mrs. Zawadzka, wife of the Puck starosta, by a grant of privilege from His Majesty King Jan Kazimierz dated 4 August 1661. We found him mentioned as possessor of a life-long grant of privilege in an inspection report from 1669, to which he produced a confirmation by the present King, His Majesty, Jan III, dated 25 October 1677, with all rights remitted to His Majesty. Tomasz Hanman, heir of the late Tomasz Busch, is a serf, and Jerzy Kornik, successor to Jedrzej Detlef, is another. They are subject to Lord Tomasz Lucki of Ranki, Puck mayor, and his wife Katarzyna, who shares his right to them; he produced a grant of privilege from His Majesty, King Jan Kazimierz, dated 2 December 1656, giving him life-long right to these serfs, and so forth. Pawel Rewa, a serf, has a wife and three children; he is the owner of a garden-sized plot…The lord’s beer in this village is served in turn by peasants, each for a year (pp. 316-33a).
    n conclusion, we should add that between 1862 and 1865 a decorated urn was recovered here on the village’s northwest side, 50 steps to left of the highway leading to the village of ZdradyIt was filled with bones and covered with a flat stone (see Objasn. do mapy archeol. Prus Zach., by Ossowski, p. 91).
    2.) PoIczyn, German name Polzin, a knightly estate, in the same place, 250 hectares; property of Simon.
    Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA August 2000 Rodziny.

    Poluńce, a peasant village, Lida powiat, in the 4th political district, belonging to the Radun gmina and rural district and treasury-owned estate of Kiwance, one km. from the gmina, 39 inhabitants.
    Translated by Barbara Proko, Boulder, CO and edited by Fred Hoffman. From the PGSA Summer 1998 Bulletin.

    Current administrative location: Pomiany, Gmina Koneck, Powiat Aleksandrów, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland. Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Pomiany, Powiat Nieszawa, Gubernia Warszawske, Vistula Land, Russian Empire.
    1) A manor farm (folwark) and village located in powiat Nieszawa and gmina Straszewo. Pomiany belongs to the Koneck Parish. It is a distance of 11 verst from Nieszawa. Pomiany has 71 inhabitants. In 1876, this folwark was separated from the Koneck estate. The Pomiany folwark has 190 morgs of open area (181 morgs of arable farm and garden land, 2 morgs of meadows, 7 morgs of barren land), 4 brick buildings and 1 wooden building. The Pomiany village has 9 inhabitants on 10 morgs of land.
    Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009.

    Current administrative location: Popowice, Gmina Inowrocław, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland. Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Popowice, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.
    1) An estate located in powiat Inowrocław. It is located about 4 kilometers southwest of Inowrocław. Popowice belongs to the Inowrocław Parish. The post office and railway station are also located in Inowrocław. Popowice has 8 houses with 129 inhabitants (all Catholics).
    The Popowice estate has an area of land equal to 310.56 hectare (221.60 hectare of farmland, 18.20 hectare of meadows, 66.24 hectare of pastures, and 4.51 hectare of unused barren land). The income generated from the land is equal to 5219 marks.
    Popowice is owned by the (Zwiastowania) NMP Parish in Inowrocław. As far back as 1583, Popowice was owned by an Inowrocław pastor and the estate was comprised of 5 łans (fields).
    Translated by Al Wierzba, December 2009.

    Porąbka, a village in Limanowa powiat, Roman Catholic parish in Dobra, lies in a hilly region, on the highway from the old Sub-Carpathian railway station in Dobra to Lapanow and Gdow. The elevation of the village is 611 meters; to the west the Snieznica rises to a height of 1,006 meters, to the east the elevation is 650 meters. The village is on the bank of the Lososina. Spruce forests stretch to the west and south. It borders to the south on Dobra, to the north on Stroza Struskiewicze, to the east on Zawadka, and has 443 inhabitants, 438 Roman Catholic and 5 Jewish. On the grounds of the major estate, owned by the Cistercian Fathers’ monastery in Szczyrzyc, there are 2 houses, 21 Roman Catholic inhabitants. Of its 936 morgs, the major estate has 164 (i.e., 40 of farmland, 15 of meadows, 15 of pastures and 194 of woods); the minor estates has 872 (i.e., 415 farmland, 113 of meadows, 171 of pastures and 173 of woods). The soil is for oats and rocky. The gmina has a loan society with a capital of 186 Rhenish zl. Dlugosz mentions this village (in Liber beneficiorum, II, 265) as the property of Spytek “de domo Streparum” [“of the house of Strepa”?]; at that time the peasants rendered a tithe to the Bishop of Krak—w, and the pastor in Dobra also collected a tithe from the lan belonging to the nobility (praedium). In 1581 this village was divided into two parts: the property of the Szczyrzyc monastery had 9 peasant half-lan sections and a croft [zagroda] with farmland, and Sebastyan Sikorski’s part had 1 peasant’s lan and 7 crofts with land (Pawinski, Malopolska, 53).
    Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Winter 1999 Bulletin.

Porąbka Uszewska
    Porąbka Uszewska, once known as Biskupia, in documents shown as “Episcopalis Porambka”, is a village in the county of Brzesko, located about 8⅓ kilometers east of Brzesko. It lies in an uneven terrain, 290 meters above sea level. It consisted of a long road built adjacent to the stream called Złocki, which enters the Uszwica river. In the area to the north of the village, the land expanse drops to an even level as it nears the valley of the Wisła river. Towards the west, south, and the east, the elevation rises to 394 meters above sea level. It is covered with a very leafy forest, mainly beech and birch trees.
    Porąbka Uszewska borders Dębno on the north, Jastwia on the west beyond the forest and the Uszwa river, and Doły to the south. To its east, lie Łysa Góra and Sufczyn. To the south stood a wooden church with a large steeple, a rectory, and the settlement housing the local forest chief.
    In the late 1800s, the village had 204 houses and 1132 inhabitants, of whom 555 were men, 577 were women. Of these, there were 1126 Catholics and 6 Jews. On a farm holding of a noble, there were two structures housing 24 people, of whom 13 were Catholics and 11 were Israelites. The people are descended from the Mazury.
    The church holdings consisted of 153 morgen of farms, 18 of meadows, 27 of pastures and 161 of forests. The large farmstead (folwark) covered 861 morgen of farmland, 148 morgen of meadows and gardens, 133 of pastures, and 143 of forests. The soil is very fertile with a loamy base. There was a school in the village, and a lending bank with a capital of 787 złoty. It is not known when the parish church was built; it has metrical books from the year 1661, and a listing of all the pastors who served from 1550. The firt one listed is Bernard Czech. The chapel in Biesada was an affiliate of the parish from 1587 to 1840, known now as Biesiadki. It is now a parish of its own.
    In 1751, Andrzej Załuski, the Bishop of Kraków, granted the local priests the title of Archdeacons in the collegiate churches in Wojnicz and Lipnica in the Wojnicz deanery. The church in Wojnicz was built at the time of the Austrian annexation of Galicia. Besides the church in Porąbka Uszewska, a large brick chapel was built on the cemetery in 1856, through the auspices of Leopold Perisch. The parish of Porąbka included the villages of Doły, Loniowy (Lunyowa), Łysa Góra, Jaworsko and Niedżwiedza. The first four villages listed belonged to the estates of the Bishops of Kraków, along with Porąbka, which in 1581 was the property of Spytek Jordan, the Castellan of Kraków. In the late 1800s, the population of Porąbka Uszewska numbered 4766 Catholics and 71 Jews.
    During the 15th century, there were three fields owned by by the town’s sheriff and officials. They paid a tithe of 10 grzywien (an old silver coin) to the bishop of Kraków, and the local pastor. The church had its own properties, as described by the historan Długosz in his Liber Beneficiorum, volume II, page 266. In 1581, there were ten fields farmer owned, one field owned by the local sheriff, one small farm, one farmer with cattle, four farmers without cattle, and one craftsman. Porąbka is also mentioned in the book Małopolska (Little Poland) page 147.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen C. Bienick of the PGS-CA

    Posady, a peasant village on the Radunka, Lida powiat, in the 4th political district, gmina and treasury-owned estate of Kiwance, 2 km. from the gmina, 32 km. from Lida and 40 km. from Wasiliszki [Vasiliski, Belarus], has 9 houses, 92 Catholic inhabitants (42 souls in the year 1864, per the rewizja).
    Translated by Barbara Proko, Boulder, CO and edited by Fred Hoffman. From the PGSA Summer 1998 Bulletin.

    Potasznia is a village on the river Czarną Hanczą in the county of Suwałki, district of Kuków, with the parish in Suwałki. In distance, it is 7 verst (Russian miles) from Suwałki. It has 32 houses and 289 inhabitants. In 1827 there were 21 houses with 127 inhabitants. The soil is very poor with many rocks and stones. There are vast meadows with deposits of peat.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen C. Bienick of the PGS-CA

    Pstrągowa, a village which covered a vast area of land, in the county of Ropczyce, lies in a valley on a stream also called Pstrągowa, which flows into the Wisłoka river. The area has many smaller streams which in turn feed the Pstrągowa stream. Noted among them are Strachotyna, Podbrzezie, Granice and others which are unnamed.
    The village of Pstrągowa consisted of many sections and small settlements, such as, Granice Pstrągowskie with 35 houses and 201 people, Podbrzezie with 20 houses and 115 inhabitants. Pstrągowa had 162 houses, a church and 1092 inhabitants, Pyrówki had 28 houses and 139 people, Strachociny had 17 houses with 86 people, and Wola Pustkowska, had 91 houses and 557 inhabitants. Another section of Pstrągowa was divided into five settlements, namely, Będkówki, Górny Dwór, Łychowszczyzne, Maraskówna, and Okopy, in total 22 houses and 202 people. All combined, Pstrągowa had 375 houses and a population of 2392, of whom 1214 were men and 1178 were women. Of this total, 2312 were Roman Catholics and 80 were Jews. There were 3 large farmsteads. One covered 4697 morgen of land, of which 3253 were farms, 238 were meadows, 299 were pastures, and 1177 were forests. The second covered 2448 morgen of land, 1445 were farms, 100 were meadows, 122 were pastures, and 781 were forests. The third covered 2519 morgen of land, with 1808 in farms, 138 of meadows, 177 in pastures, and 396 of forests. Many joint owners controlled these holdings.
    Pstrągowa is situated in a valley and is bordered on the west, north and east by hills covered with trees. In general the soil is like clay but loamy in the higher elevations, the best being in Okopa and Maraskówka, especially in the lower sections. In olden days, this was known as a collocation according to the historian Długosz, in his book Liber Beneficiorum Volume II, page 256, and Volume III, page 393. According to the writer Pawinski, in his book “Małopolska” (Little Poland), he states that in 1536 Pstrągowa was known as Pstrągowa Górna (Upper) and Pstrągowa Niźna (Lower). Pstrągowa Gorna had two owners, half belonged to Stanisław Łowczynski, and the other half to Jan Krampski. There were 60 farm owners with fields of various sizes, who paid a tax of 18 “grzywien” (an old monetary silver coin), in addition to 60 measures of oats, and cheese, eggs, and such. Besides these farms, there were 30 vacant fields, two manor houses and two royal “folwarks” (large farmsteads, usually owned by the nobility), two inns, which paid a tax of two grzywny, a water mill, and three neglected ponds. The local town sheriff owned four fields. The value of Pstrągowa Gorna was stated as 300 grzywna.
    Pstrągowa Niźna (Lower) was the property of Jan Ramolt, and had 17 fields owned by farmers, who paid a tax of 7 grzywny and 23 groszy, and an inn which paid a tax of 22 measures of oats. Lower Pstrągowa had a worth of 250 grzywna. In Pawinski’s history of Małopolska, page 257, he writes that in 1581, Pstrągowa Niźna was divided into two sections, both owned by Melchior Szczepiecki, but one section was maintained by Dorota Dymnicka. Her portion had 25 farms, two tenant farmers with cattle, and three tenant farmers without cattle. The local sheriff owned two large fields. Another section had 46 farm owners on 11 fields, six tenant farmers with cattle, and seven tenant farmers without cattle.
    The Roman Catholic Church was built of wood, and constructed in 1474. The parish belonged to the diocese of Tarnów, and the deanery of Wielopole. In the late 1800s, portions of Pstrągowa were the property of Teofil Wasilewski and Elizabeth Gokiert. The owner of the settlement of Okopa was a Jewish proprietor, who received it from the Łazowski family. A tragic event occurred in 1846, when all the joint property owners and their administrators were murdered. Many had children attending schools in Rzeszów. The attackers managed to recall them from the schools, and upon returning home, they too met the murderous fate of their parents.
    Pstrągowa had no schools. The local lending bank had a capital of 1033 złoty. Pstrągowa borders Nowa Wieś on the south, Czudec on the east, with Przedmieście Czudeckie; on the west it borders Zawadka and Nawsie, and on the north Bystrzyca.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen C. Bienick of the PGS-CA

    Puńsk, once a small town, in the late 1800s was known as a small settlement. It lies in the district of Sejny, in the county of Suwałki. There is a parish church in the village. In distance, it is 27 verst [1] (Russian miles) from the city of Suwałki, in the northeasterly direction. It is located on the right side of the high road, which connects Suwałki and Mariampol. The local church is built of brick, and there was an elementary school in the village.
    In the late 1880s, there were 105 houses with 760 inhabitants. The Puńsk area covered 803 morgen [2] of land. In 1827, there were 82 houses and 748 people. The area was very woodsy and close to the royal forest, which was very big, and reached a height of 1000 feet above the water level of the Baltic.Puńsk became a town in the 18th century, about the same time as the cities of Maryampol, Kalvarija and Ludwinów. (These cities are presently in Lithuania). Due to the lack of favorable conditions, it was never able to develop and flourish. The first county administrator was Ludwik Pociej, a castellan from Wilno (now Vilnius). He was a Lithuanian commander, who founded the town of Ludwinów. Puńsk was very grateful to him in his efforts to grant it privileges. Later, the civil rule of Puńsk was combined with the village of Krasnowo.
    Stanisław Zalewski, the king’s standard bearer from Inflanty, became the benefactor in the formation of a parish and erecting a wooden church in 1597. Eventually, this church was replaced by one built of brick, and designed in the shape of a cross. The parish of Puńsk belongs to the deanery of Suwałki, but at one time was a member of the deanery in Sejny. The deanery numbered 10,302 souls. The forest area of Puńsk is divided into two sections called Wiżajny and Lebiedzina. In total it covered 4,651 morgs of land. Most of these forests, (3,945 morgen) were in the county of Suwałki; 142 morgs were located in the county of Kalwarja.
    Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny by Helen C. Bienick of the PGS-CA